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Reports Of The President 1927-1928

General Report For The Year

To the Honorable, The Board of Visitors of the Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College and Polytechnic Institute:


I have the honor to submit the following general report of the institution for the year which began July 1, 1927, and ended June 30, 1928:

Changes In Staff

Leaves Of Absence: James Godkin, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Agricultural Extension Division, 1927-28; Katharine Holtzclaw, Instructor in Home Economics, March-June, 1928; Mary B. Settle, District Home Demonstration Agent, 1928.

Resignations And Expiration Of Terms: T. K. Wolfe, Professor of Agronomy, Agronomist, Agricultural Experiment Station; Ellen A. Reynolds, Home Economist, Agricultural Experiment Station; G. W. Patteson, Agronomist, Agricultural Extension Division; H. P. Detwiler, Assistant Professor of Military Science and Tactics, Assistant Commandant of Cadets; Kent Apperson, Assistant Horticulturist, Agricultural Extension Division; E. J. Maloney, Assistant Professor of Military Science and Tactics, Assistant Commandant of Cadets; W. L. Skaggs, Instructor in Music, Bandmaster; E. L. Langsford, Assistant Agricultural Economist, Agricultural Experiment Station; J. E. Caldwell, Instructor in Military Science and Tactics; F. P. Pitts, Instructor in Chemistry; W. G. Nunn, Assistant Agricultural Engineer, Agricultural Extension Division; C. J. Coon, Instructor in Animal Pathology; L. H. Ferguson, Instructor in Military Science and Tactics; C. N. Priode, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Agricultural Experiment Station; Z. A. Wissinger, Instructor in Physical Education; M. P. Miller, Assistant Chemist, Agricultural Experiment Station; Herman Farley, Assistant Animal Pathologist, Agricultural Experiment Station; Mary G. Stark, Assistant Librarian.

Promotions: L. P. Edwards, Professor of Civil Engineering; C. C. Taylor, Professor of Agricultural Economics, Specialist in Marketing, Agricultural Extension Division; F. H. Fish, Associate Professor of Chemistry; R. E. Hussey, Associate Professor of Chemistry; W. H. Byrne, Agronomist, Agricultural Extension Division; G. T. Baird, Assistant Professor of Business Administration; V. O. Johns, Assistant Professor of Economics.

Appointments: Ilena M. Bailey, Home Economist, Agricultural Experiment Station; O. B. Bucher, Assistant Professor of Military Science and Tactics, Assistant Commandant of Cadets; E. A. Greene, Assistant Professor of Military Science and Tactics, Assistant Commandant of Cadets; C. W. Pegram, Specialist in Dairy Manufacturing, Agricultural Extension Division; L. J. Bray, Assistant Professor of English; E. F. Davis, Assistant Plant Physiologist, Agricultural Experiment Station; N. A. Pettinger, Associate Agronomist, Agricultural Experiment Station, Assistant Professor of Agronomy; C. H. Hamilton, Assistant Rural Sociologist, Agricultural Experiment Station; R. A. Ballinger, Assistant Agricultural Economist, Agricultural Experiment Station; Emma Weld, Acting Assistant Professor of Home Economics; S. D. Preston, Assistant Agronomist, Agricultural Extension Division; A. H. Teske, Assistant Horticulturist, Agricultural Extension Division, Assistant Professor of Horticulture; A. E. Shannon, Instructor in Chemistry; J. A. Addlestone, Instructor in Chemistry; P. H. McGauhey, Instructor in Civil Engineering; N. W. Conner, Instructor in Experimental Engineering; C. C. Hill, Instructor in Engineering Drawing; G. A. Moore, Instructor in Physical Education; Frank Moore, Instructor in Military Science and Tactics; E. F. Williams, Instructor in Military Science and Tactics; G. A. Johnson, Instructor in Music, Bandmaster; L. E. Starr, Instructor in Zoology and Animal Pathology; Lettie Whitt, Assistant Librarian; Allene Whitener, Assistant Librarian.

Faculty Appointments

By reason of death, resignation, leave of absence, and expansion of the work of the college, a far greater number of positions had to be filled than is usually the case. Recently we have lost by resignation six full professors -- Dr. T. K. Wolfe, Dr. E. A. Reynolds, Dr. F. D. Fromme, Dr. W. A. Brumfield, Prof. A. L. Dean, and Prof. L. P. Edwards. There have also been losses from other groups. Numerous leaves of absence were granted.

We have diligently searched for suitable men to fill the vacancies. The difficulties are many. There is great competition among the colleges and between the colleges and the industries, for the best men in technical and scientific fields. An institution as small as this one, situated in a rather isolated spot, and with limited resources, is handicapped in the race for the best men. Moreover, outstanding men are wont to go where there are other outstanding men, and where an institution has professional prestige, particularly that resulting from research activities. One thing is quite evident, that we must provide larger salaries if we are to induce strong men in technical fields to join our staff.

Summer Activities

The usual summer activities kept the campus busy. The Summer Quarter attendance was fair, and apparently good work was done. A well attended short course for electric metermen was conducted for two weeks by our electrical engineering department. An innovation was the one-week short course for agricultural high school instructors, which preceded the one-week conference of all the instructors in vocational agriculture under the Smith-Hughes Act in Virginia. The short course was very well attended and seemed to justify its continuance in succeeding summers. The largely attended boys and girls short course under the direction of the Agricultural Extension Division was most satisfactory. The State Agricultural Advisory Council held a valuable all-day meeting preceding the State Farmers Institute. The latter had an attractive program and an encouraging attendance.

Certificates Of Merit In Agriculture

In accordance with custom, during the Farmers’ Institute of 1927, certificates of merit for outstanding contributions to the agricultural interests of Virginia, were awarded to: Mrs. F. C. Beverley, of Whitmell, Virginia, and Dr. S. S. Guerrant, of Algoma, Virginia.

Opening Of The Fifty-Sixth Session

An innovation marked the beginning of the work of the session. Three days, September 20, 21, and 22, were used for registration and orientation of new students. A program of exercises was arranged for them, and almost without exception they reported promptly on the first morning. The physical examinations given by the health officer and the routine of registration were practically completed on the first day. Each day an hour was assigned for military drill in the forenoon and another hour in the afternoon; each afternoon after 4 o’clock was used for recreation, cheering practise, and athletics; and each evening after supper there was an assembly, with brief talks, moving pictures, and music. The talks were made by the president of the college, the deans, the commandant, the health officer, the president of the corps of cadets, a minister of the town, and the Y. M. C. A. secretary; and the topics of these talks were timely and helpful to the entering students. On the third day, in addition to the exercises just described, an hour in the morning was used for the English placement test (on the basis of which the students were divided into sections for work in the English department) and an hour in the afternoon for the psychological test of the American Council on Education. Also in the morning an hour was devoted to an assembly wherein the honor system of the college was discussed and explained.

While the experience of this year should enable us to present an improved program for next session, it may be said that it is the universal opinion that the experiment was a success and very well worthwhile. The officials of the college were assisted by the cadet officers who were requested to return two days earlier to take charge of the drills, and by the large committee of Y. M. C. A. men who mixed with the new students and assisted them in many ways. Other former students were not permitted to return before the third day of the registration period, and their registration was completed without difficulty in that one day. Classes began regularly at 8 a. m., September 23.

Student Enrolment

Details of enrolment are given in the annual catalog. To summarize, it is stated that a total of 1,300 students were enrolled during the nine-months session, which showed an increase of 76 over the next preceding year. Of these 224 were registered in the four-year agricultural curricula, being 35 more than the year before; 628 in the engineering curricula, being 24 less than the year before; 307 in business administration curricula, being 44 more than the year before; 86 in applied science curricula, being 3 less than the year before; and the remainder in unclassified and special courses. The Summer Quarter of 1927 registered 225 regular students, which was an increase of 41 over the preceding year.

Of the regular nine-months session enrolment, 89.8% came from Virginia, whereas last session 89.6% were from Virginia. The 133 students from outside of this state came from 27 states and 4 foreign countries.

The increase in enrolment has come in spite of the ever-increasing entrance requirements, which were applied more rigidly this year than ever before. The dean of the college refused admission to a large number of students who entered other colleges in Virginia. This was chiefly due to the heavier requirement in mathematics which we enforce, but also due to some extent to our insistence upon recommendation by the high school principal. It was also, of course, in spite of the increase in tuition and other fees, and the much more rigid application of the new system of granting state scholarships.

The second of the dormitories provided under the Noell Act not being completed at the opening, there was considerable crowding again this year, with many rooms to which three and four students were assigned. These over-crowded rooms were relieved in a few weeks when this dormitory was completed.

The financial needs of students and requests for work to help them meet their expenses, continue to be intense and numerous. As is well known, we use student waiters in the dining-hall, and utilize student labor in various capacities at the college. This year we experimented with two student janitors in charge of the new dormitory, and thus far it appears promising.

In view of the continued increase in enrolment it may not be inappropriate for me to state that in my judgment the important aim of this college should now be to secure better qualified students, to improve the instruction offered them, and to raise the standard of the accommodations furnished them. To my mind the qualitative side of college education is far more important than the quantitative side. For this reason I ardently hope that the Virginia Polytechnic Institute is definitely and permanently out of the group of educational institutions seeking numbers. Despite our increase in enrolment at the opening of the year, it may be noted that this is not one of the colleges which has proclaimed in the newspapers that "all attendance records have been smashed," and similar statements. As a matter of fact, we have exceeded all previous years in the number of students enrolled; but we should prefer to direct attention to the more careful selection which we have made in admitting them, and to the considerable number denied admission on qualitative grounds.

In saying this I am aware that unfortunately the public usually measures the prosperity of an institution by the number of students enrolled, with little or no consideration of the type of students enrolled; and also that appropriations are more often than not made on this crude basis. It is, however, encouraging to note that some of our newspapers are calling attention to the qualitative phase of college attendance and support, and undoubtedly the educational commission now surveying the institutions will give attention to this phase of the situation.

Military Rating

Much to our disappointment, we have received notice from the United States War Department that the custom of rating the R. O. T. C. work of colleges for positions on the "distinguished college list" has been discontinued. We have protested against this, and have urged a reconsideration with a view to its resumption next year. We have also requested that if it be resumed, those colleges which are now on the list be permitted to continue on the list during the interim, so that there may be no break in the record. While we have been assured that our request will be considered, there appears to be little hope that the list will be re-established. Under the new system the inspection of colleges is left to the corps area. Such an inspection has just been made, and there is no doubt that this college would remain on the distinguished list if that list were continued.

Corps Of Cadets Organization

The corps of cadets has recently revised its constitution and by-laws. A joint committee of faculty and student members worked on this for several months, and then it was presented to the corps and approved, with certain changes. In our judgment the revision is a great improvement over the old form.

In this connection it may be remarked that the corps organization has been unusually efficient and satisfactory to the college authorities this year. The general morale, and the attitude toward the institution, has seemed to be higher than in any year of the present administration. This is due to the student officers and certain members of the college staff, particularly the dean of the college and the commandant of cadets.

Tau Beta Epsilon

The students of this college now publish an annual, two quarterlies, and one weekly, and a considerable amount of work is attached to these activities for which those engaged are not remunerated. Particularly from the standpoint of the department of English, but also from that of the administration in general, it seems wise to encourage these student enterprises. The students believe that the formation of a journalistic honor society, to be composed of members of the staffs of these publications, will be an incentive to students to take an active part in publication work, and they requested to be permitted to form a chapter of the Tau Beta Epsilon, an honor society. This is not one of the Greek letter fraternities of the social type, but is strictly a journalistic honor society. The college has a chapter of the Phi Kappa Phi honor society, which is an organization of this type for the general recognition of scholarship, particularly in the fields of science. Permission being granted, this organization has been established.

Gift To Library

Dr. William B. Alwood, for many years a professor in this institution and a scientist of wide reputation, has donated his scientific library of many volumes and pamphlets in the field of horticulture and mycology. Included in the collection are valuable manuscripts of unpublished research. This generous gift makes a handsome addition to our agricultural library, and should prove most useful, especially in connection with the experiment station work. The cataloging of the collection will be proceeded with as rapidly as is possible with our limited staff. We are very grateful to Professor Alwood for his liberality and interest in our work.

Gifts Of Scholarships

Hon. Westmoreland Davis, former Governor of Virginia, has provided a scholarship of $300 a year for a student in agriculture or home economics. This scholarship is available for a boy or girl entering as a freshman next session. The selection of the beneficiary is to be made by the officers of the college on a basis of promise of successful work and financial need.

The Virginia State Fair Association has offered two scholarships of $200 each. These scholarships are available for either boys or girls who win the grand championship in the baby beef show and the 4-H dairy show, respectively.

The Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Masons of Virginia has established a loan fund for the benefit of juniors and seniors. These funds are to be lent to students upon recommendation of the college officials on practically the same terms as the state loan fund. It may be recalled that the Knights Templar a few years ago established a similar loan fund which has helped a large number of our students.

It is very gratifying that these scholarships and loan funds are being established. There is great need for such help on the part of our students, as we always have many more calls for assistance from the state loan fund and for student employment than we can provide with our present resources. It is interesting to note that recently two of our successful alumni have conferred with me with reference to the establishment of a number of engineering scholarships, it being their intention to provide in their wills funds for this purpose. I believe that with proper encouragement other alumni might do the same thing, but in these two cases the action was purely voluntary, without any suggestion from us.

Agricultural Experiment Station

The year’s agricultural research program involved 110 separate projects dealing with farming problems of importance to the state. Special attention was given to problems in economics and sociology because of the acute need for facts to guide farmers in marketing and in organizational activities. New projects were undertaken this year dealing with the woolly apple aphis; drought-spot of tobacco; toxicity of black walnut; markets, marketing costs and methods of marketing apples; leafhoppers of the apple; rural and urban taxation; and several minor studies. The projects completed or brought to a conclusive stage during the year are indicated by the list of bulletins published. The force was strengthened by the addition of several new workers.

The study of spraying and spray equipment proved to be very helpful to orchardists, and the results of this study have done much to improve spraying practices in the commercial orchards of the state. The experiments on the feeding value of dried apple pomace showed that this feeding stuff had a useful place in the ration for dairy cows and gave apple growers an outlet for this by-product.

The following publications were issued during the year:

Bulletin 259 -- A Study of the Biology and Control of the Red-Banded Leaf-Roller. By W. S. Hough; 29 pages, 6 figures. December, 1927.

Bulletin 260 -- Orchard Spraying and Spray Equipment. By W. S. Hough; 12 pages, 3 figures. February, 1928.

Bulletin 261 -- Life History of the Codling Moth in Virginia. By W. J. Schoene, W. S. Hough, L. A. Stearns, L. R. Cagle, C. R. Willey and A. M. Woodside; 56 pages, 7 figures. March, 1928.

Bulletin 262 -- The Control of Cereal Smuts by Seed Treatment. By F. D. Fromme; 16 pages, 4 figures. June, 1928.

Bulletin 263 -- The Market for Milk in Richmond, Virginia. By J. J. Vernon and R. S. Kifer; 15 pages, 4 figures. June 1928.

Bulletin 264 -- Life History and Control of the Pale-Striped and the Banded Flea Beetles. By G. W. Underhill; 20 pages, 6 figures. June, 1928.

Technical Bulletin 31 -- The Cicadellidae (Homoptera) of Virginia. By Louis A. Stearns; 21 pages, 1 figure. November, 1927.

Technical Bulletin 32 -- The Importance of Properly Balanced Rations in Trials to Determine Digestibility as Shown in Experiments with Dried Apple Pomace. By C. W. Holdaway, W. B. Ellett; J. F. Eheart, and M. P. Miller; 18 pages. December, 1927.

Technical Bulletin 33 -- Erythroneura Hartii (Gill.), an Occasional Leafhopper Pest on the Apple. By Louis A. Stearns; 15 pages, 5 plates. January, 1928.

Agricultural Extension Division

As in past years, this year’s agricultural extension program was based on the long-time program for the development of Virginia’s agriculture worked out in 1923, together with the state and national agricultural outlook reports for the current year. Increasing attention was given to working out county and district extension programs, and in every case recommendations were based on the most accurate outlook and research materials available. The county advisory boards rendered valuable assistance in localizing outlook information and in getting it used in an intelligent way.

Considerable progress was made during the year in coordinating the efforts of the farm organizations of the state. Through the state agricultural advisory council an agricultural conference board was organized. This conference board is made up of representatives of each of the general and farm commodity organizations in Virginia, and has for its purpose the consideration of all legislation and other factors affecting the welfare of Virginia farmers. The twenty organizations which made up the conference board have a total membership of approximately 50,000 farmers.

Due to the passage of the Capper-Ketcham Act, additional funds were available for extension work. Two additional farm demonstration agents, four additional home demonstration agents and two specialists were added to the staff during the year. Seventy-three white farm agents, forty-three white home agents, nineteen negro farm agents and seven negro home agents were employed in county extension work.

That the average county agent was a busy person during 1927-28 is evidenced by statistics taken from their annual reports. This average agent made two farm or home visits each working day of the year, answered three telephone calls, had two office visits, wrote four letters and distributed a number of circulars and bulletins. In addition, this agent wrote at least one newspaper article per week and one circular dealing with better farming methods. During the year the 140 agents in Virginia made 220 exhibits at county and community fairs, held 302 meetings for the training of local leaders and gave 10,000 method demonstrations to 166,139 people.

They conducted 59 encampments with an attendance of 2,500 people and 112 extension schools and short courses with an attendance of more than 6,000. In addition, they conducted 6,307 other meetings which were attended by approximately 214,000 people.

Nine extension bulletins were printed during the year and sent out to carefully prepared mailing lists. The titles of these bulletins are as follows:

No. 102. Spray Information for Virginia Fruit Growers -- F. A. Motz.

No. 51. Poultry Production (revised by A. L. Dean) -- Mr. and Mrs. A. F. Treakle.

No. 103. Suggestions for Breeding and Raising Turkeys -- T. E. Starnes.

No. 104. Pork Production -- G. C. Herring.

No. 105. Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics in Virginia -- J. R. Hutcheson.

No. 106. The School Lunch -- Mary B. McGowan.

No. 107. Dishes for Social Affairs -- Mary B. McGowan.

No. 108. Farmers’ Account Book -- C. C. Taylor.

No. 109. Market Lamb Production in Virginia -- L. I. Case.

In addition 10,000 copies of a circular entitled "Garden Plans for Virginia Farmers" and 3,800 circulars entitled "Swat the Scrub" were also distributed. Approximately 30,000 copies of a circular letter giving information in regard to the control of the Mexican bean beetle were sent out.

Engineering Experiment Station

A considerable amount of work was done by the Engineering Experiment Station on the following new projects: timber beams (17)*; welded joints (19); Virginia coals (22 and 23); and sewage disposal (24). Preparations were made for field tests of farm machinery (20) and tractor engines (26).

*Figures in parentheses are the numbers of the projects.

The design of "A New Type of Gear-Testing Machine" (20) was completed, and the results of the study were published as bulletin No.4, June, 1928. An effort has been made to secure the assistance of manufacturers of gears, as well as the engineering societies, toward building the machine and conducting tests, because it is believed that its adoption would revolutionize the gear industry.

It was thought that the station might be of considerable assistance to the ceramic industry of the state, both as to present research problems, and towards the development and extension of the industry. Accordingly, towards the end of the year, suggestions were secured regarding methods of procedure, and especially towards the purchase of suitable equipment for both research and instruction in ceramics.

During the year work on project No.4 -- an investigation of boiler compounds, led to the publication of a bulletin by the Engineering Extension Division. The results of the investigation were of considerable informational importance, but did not justify a research publication.

Expenditures during the year were confined principally to:

(1) assisting the department of agricultural engineering in completing the installation of an electric dynamometer; (2) work on plans for the gear-testing machine, in the department of graphics; and (3) the purchase of equipment for a ceramic laboratory.

Engineering Extension Division

The activities of the Engineering Extension Division for the year were confined to three lines: (1) publishing a quarterly bulletin on technical subjects for non-technical men; (2) short courses on technical subjects, and (3) giving advice on technical subjects to industries, municipalities and individuals.

The following bulletins were published:

No. 12 -- The Coals of Virginia, July, 1927.

No. 13 -- Size of Culverts, October, 1927.

No. 14 -- The Oriskany Clay, January, 1928.

No. 15 -- Storage Batteries, Their Care and Use, April, 1928.

A short course for electric metermen was given in June by the department of electrical engineering. This course lasted for six days and was attended by thirty-eight men.

Technical advice was given on a wide range of subjects, usually to the smaller municipalities and industries that did not maintain technical staffs of their own. In nearly all cases we have been able to answer the questions asked or to refer the inquirer to the proper agency. Some materials, chiefly stone and sand, have been tested.

Sewage Disposal Plant

The new sewage disposal plant which was built jointly by the town of Blacksburg and the college, was completed and put into operation.

The cost of this plant approximated a total of $92,000, of which one-half was paid by the town and one-half by the college. The college had only $41,403 available for this project in the special appropriation, consequently the remainder had to be paid out of general funds. Apparently the work was done well, although completion was considerably delayed.

New Dormitory

The General Assembly authorized the college to issue certificates of indebtedness in accordance with the Noell Act for $150,000 for the construction of an additional dormitory for non-military students. In accordance with the general plan for the development of the physical plant, this dormitory was located between the War Memorial Hall and the Agricultural Extension Building. It is being built of stone, the architecture being in accord with the neighboring buildings.

Heating And Power Plant

The appropriation bill passed by the recent General Assembly authorized the college to issue certificates of indebtedness in accordance with the Noell Act to the amount of $250,000 for the erection and equipment of a new heating and power plant. The heating engineers, Wiley and Wilson, have been working on the plans for several months and have secured quotations for most of the equipment.

In addition to the complicated and highly technical character of the building and its equipment, the question of site was a puzzling one. The engineers and our faculty committee gave much study to this problem, and it was decided to locate the new plant immediately to the rear of the old plant.

Late in the year contract was awarded for the erection of the building, and authority was given for the placing of orders for equipment.

Student Hospital

The budget for the current year includes an appropriation of $25,000 for an addition to the student hospital. The architects, in conference with the health officer of the college, and the faculty committee, have worked out plans and specifications for this building. Considerable difficulty was experienced in arriving at an arrangement of space in the proposed addition, and the plans were changed almost completely more than once, in order to meet the views of the health officer. Since the plans were put into final shape in accordance with his views, he has resigned his position to take effect September 1, and the nurses in charge of the hospital have requested that the plans be not finally approved until a successor is selected and has had an opportunity to go over the matter. This together with the desirability of transferring funds as far as practicable for the engineering hall project, led to a decision that the erection of the hospital addition be postponed, with the Governor’s approval, to the second year of the biennium.

Patton Engineering Hall

The plans for Patton Engineering Hall call for three floors above the basement now in place, and it was estimated that $200,000 would be required to complete this building. In making up his budget the Governor found that he could not allow this much, but he did include $110,800 for additional work on this building. After careful consideration of the situation, our faculty committee and the architects were strongly of the opinion that it would be best to complete all of the stone work and the permanent roof on this building, and use the remainder of the available amount for completing as much as possible of the interior, it being thought that the first story above the basement could be finished within the amount available. The architects were accordingly requested to prepare plans and specifications with alternates in such a way that we could go as far as the available funds would permit.

The funds for Patton Engineering Hall are provided by direct appropriation rather than by a loan, as in the case of the dormitory. The appropriation is carried in the biennial budget, in the second year, beginning March 1, 1929. It was, however, for obvious reasons quite desirable to award the contract for this building at the same time the contract was awarded for the new dormitory. The buildings are of the same type of construction, and it was almost certain that a contractor would be willing to erect both buildings at the same time for less than erecting them separately, or erecting only one with some other contractor erecting the other. The cost of overhead could be considerably reduced by carrying on the construction of the buildings at the same time. It was undoubtedly wise and economical to quarry the entire amount of stone at one time. Moreover, the space to be provided by this building for certain engineering departments is badly needed, and we should like to be able to occupy it at the earliest possible date. There seemed, therefore, to be every reason, from the standpoint of need for space and economy of construction, for making some arrangement whereby the funds for this building appropriated for the second year of the biennium can be used during the current budget year. The Governor authorized this to be done by the transfer of certain items in the budget for this year. The following items and amounts were transferred from the first year to the second year of the biennium, with the approval of the Governor:

Remodelling Dairy Barn$ 6,500
Special Repairs to Barracks10,500
Household Equipment (for barracks)5,000
Extension of Sewers5,000
Extension of Water Mains11,500
Addition to Student Hospital25,000

In this way only $47,300 will have to be provided. It seems probable that at least one-half of this amount will not be due until after March 1, 1929, so that it will cost comparatively little to borrow from a bank the balance actually needed for a short period.

Other Physical Plant Improvements

Davidson Hall was completed and partially occupied by classes during the Summer Quarter of 1927.

The remodelling of the old Science Hall for use as a dormitory was completed and the building was occupied during the Winter and Spring Quarters. The new dormitory on the barracks quadrangle had been previously completed and used for groups during the summer.

Before the opening of the Fall Quarter our college force completed the remodelling of Academic Building No. 1, which added another story and doubled the space allotted to the graphics department.

During the summer months numerous repair jobs were executed, and some projects outside of general repairs were completed. Among these may be mentioned: tile floor in main dining hall; storage room and shed added to dining hall; sewer lines from Davidson Hall and old Science Hall; grading and walks near new dormitory; new chlorinating apparatus at water pumping station; new top and bottom to water tank; east wing of main dairy barn remodelled and all barns repainted; electric distribution lines changed and extended in western end of college property; equipment added for the creamery, administrative offices, dormitories, power plant, shops, and departments of graphics, printing, and others; water main around Davidson Hall; replacement and enlargement of main sewer line along College Avenue; new road extension of College Avenue, with grading, culverts and lights connected therewith; improvements in the barns area, including outdoor stock-judging arena; new heating system in one faculty house and new roof on another; and considerable landscaping at various points, including a number of additional tennis courts.


Patton Engineering Hall Patton Engineering Hall -- Completed June, 1929


Davidson Hall of Chemistry Davidson Hall of Chemistry -- Occupied Augst, 1927


Need For Additional Land

Several times I have called the attention of the Board to the need for additional land for pasturage for the dairy husbandry department, and for farming under the department of agronomy. The biennial budget of requests included two items, one of $24,000 for the former department, and one of $35,000 for the latter department.

The Slusser land, consisting of 67 acres on the Price’s Fork Road, has been paid for in full. The acquisition of this tract has supplied the pressing need for grazing land for the department of animal husbandry.

An urgent need exists for additional pasturage for the department of dairy husbandry. This department is now using one-half of the 96-acre tract leased from Mr. Crumpacker, but notwithstanding this it has been found necessary to rent additional land from the Smithfield property. Since the main campus of the college has been necessarily enlarged in recent years due to the erection of additional buildings, the pasturage formerly allowed on the campus has been curtailed. From the standpoint of economy in feeding as well as from the more serious standpoint of sanitary conditions for the dairy cattle, it is very important that additional land be permanently acquired for this department.

Attention is again directed also to the need of the college farm for additional land. Various tracts formerly used for farming have been taken into the main college campus and dedicated to other uses, thus cutting down the college land available for farming to an amount altogether too small for economic operation. At present we are using one-half of the Crumpacker farm of 96 acres and the McBryde farm of approximately 133 acres for farming.

Being unable to secure the requested appropriations for the purchase of land, it was decided to lease the Smithfield property of approximately 618 acres with dwelling and barn, for a five-year period beginning November 1, 1929.

Students’ Fees

At a conference with the administrative heads of the state institutions, the Governor requested that all colleges increase their fees charged students to a minimum of $100 for the nine-months session. Our fees now amount to $91, so that the proposed increase will mean adding only $9.00 in our case. It was decided that this increase be made in the maintenance fee, beginning in September, 1928.

Capper-Ketcham Bill

I am glad to report that the Congress passed the Capper-Ketcham Bill, which authorizes an appropriation of $980,000 for the first year and thereafter $1,480,000 per annum for the further development of extension work.

Our Agricultural Extension Division will profit by this act to the extent of $20,000 for the year beginning July 1, 1928. It is required that 80% of this amount be expended for the employment of farm and home demonstration agents. It is also intended that these funds shall be used largely for the promotion of the boys’ and girls’ clubs.

Loss Of Revenue

Under the reorganization act of the special session of 1927 of the General Assembly, the institution will lose approximately the following amounts:

Bank interest$ 5,300
Cash discounts10,000
Interest on endowment6,886

The land-grant funds forming the endowment amount to $344,312, and we have been receiving 6% interest. These funds have been handled by the Second Auditor. This official paid over to the college in cash on January 1, 1928, the amount of the funds he had handled, and the Board ordered that they should be entrusted to the State-Planters Bank and Trust Company for investment. This shift of responsibility to the Board means that instead of securing 6% on the invested funds it will probably be unable to get more than 4½%. The loss of revenue will probably be greater this year during the transition than later, but we can never hope to receive as much as we have been receiving from this source.

The Biennial Budget Of Requests

As is well known to the Board, the budget of this institution is voluminous and involved. It is not possible within the limits of this report to include the details, hence a summary is presented, showing the amounts requested for the various functions, the estimated revenues from sources other than state appropriations, and the net state appropriation requested. Following this is a list of the capital outlay and special items included in the two-year requests. It is to be understood, of course, that these tables relate to the college proper. The budgets of the Agricultural Experiment Station and the Agricultural Extension Division are included in the reports of their respective directors, and they also constitute separate divisions of the Governor’s printed budget.

Table I -- Summary of Biennial Budget Requested for 1928-30

(Compared with Preceding Biennium)





Net State



Net State
Administration114,830  28,000  86,830  103,720  34,000  69,720  
Agriculture258,330  24,600  233,730  224,780  64,714  160,066  
S. H. Agriculture33,460  18,000  15,460  31,780  23,000  8,780  
Engineering221,530  26,200  195,330  234,550  69,932  164,618  
S. H. Trades9,040  2,400  6,640  ……  ……  ……  
Mechanic Arts81,850  42,600  39,250  86,550  46,954  39,596  
Printing62,750  62,750   ……  66,000  66,000  ……  
Academic-Science277,000  78,584  198,416  266,350  58,972  207,378  
Military24,400  1,000  23,400  21,650  1,200  20,450  
Summer Quarter40,000  26,000  14,000  34,800  22,620  12,180  
Library30,320  5,400  24,920  31,900  13,200  18,700  
Hospital46,040  18,000  28,040  55,150  24,400  30,750  
Dining Hall294,350  294,350  ……  360,732  360,732  ……  
Tailor Shop100,650  100,650   ……  100,000  100,000  ……  
Laundry36,600  36,600  ……  44,550  49,480  4,930  
Farm70,270  15,000  55,270  62,350  20,000  42,350  
Dairy Husbandry55,750  18,000  37,750  72,974  29,000  43,974  
Animal Husbandry54,100  2,400  51,700  28,500  7,000  21,500  
Creamery70,000  70,000  ……  66,300  65,200  1,100  
Heat & Power Plant322,250  74,000  248,250  456,959  68,644  388,315  
Electric Service52,650  50,000  2,650  53,700  72,292  18,592  
Plbg., Sewer, Water58,975  8,500  50,475  65,750  11,000  54,750  
Buildings & Grounds  1,039,430  64,000  975,430  1,031,030  118,290  912,740  
Sinking Fund12,000  ……  12,000  46,680  14,974  31,706  
Student Loans6,000  ……  6,000  6,000  ……  6,000  
Total3,372,575  1,067,034  *2,305,541  3,552,755  1,341,604  2,211,151  

  † These amounts are not requests for appropriation but the reverse. They represent excess of estimated revenue over requests, hence are profits to reduce the appropriation requested from the state.
  * The amount appropriated in 1926-28 was $588,280.
  The amounts in columns (4) and (7) are obtained by subtracting the corresponding amounts in columns (3) and (6) from those in columns (2) and (5), respectively.

Table I is arranged so that the amounts requested and the estimated revenues for the 1928-30 biennium may be compared with the corresponding amounts for the 1926-28 period. From the totals it is to be noted that the net requests proposed for 1928-30 were $94,390 less than the requests made for 1926-28.

Table II -- Capital Outlay and Special Items in Biennial Budget Requested for 1928-30

(Amounts include both years)

Repairs: $88,400  
 Departmental Equipment and Buildings$ 23,400  
 General to Buildings and Grounds30,000  
 Special to Barracks30,000  
 Roads and Walks5,000  
Departmental Equipment: 115,275  
 Agricultural$ 8,500  
 Mechanic Arts2,250  
 Library Books7,000  
 Binding Library Books and Periodicals1,200  
 Dining Hall4,000  
 Tailor Shop2,225  
 Electric Service4,200  
 Barracks Furniture, etc.11,800  
 Auto Trucks6,350  
Water and Fire Protection: 45,350  
 Extension of Water Mains$ 12,000  
 Water Meters1,850  
 Extension of Sewer Lines7,500  
 Triple Combination Auto Fire Pump9,000  
Heating and Power System: 378,104  
 Engine and Generator Equipment$ 39,715  
 Boilers and Auxiliary Equipment51,184  
 Water Softening Equipment17,860  
 Condensers and Cooling Equipment18,075  
 Hot Water Equipment and Piping16,320  
 Coal and Ash Handling Equipment21,500  
 Heating and Power Plant Building80,000  
 Heating System for Tailor Shop2,225  
 Heating System for Mechanic Arts Building10,000  
 Extension of Heating Mains100,000  
 Lighting Grounds and Buildings6,000  
 Extension of Electric Service Lines2,000  
Land: 59,000  
 Crumpacker Farm Land, 96A.$24,000  
 McBryde Farm Land, 133A.35,000  
Remodelling and Additions to Present Buildings: 52,000  
 Addition to Student Hospital$ 25,000  
 Remodelling and Equipping West Wing of Dairy Barn9,000  
 Addition to Laundry Building4,000  
 Block Floor in Electrical Laboratory4,000  
 Covering Court and Completing Unfinished
Parts of Mechanic Arts Building
New Minor Structures: 62,600  
 Agricultural Engineering Laboratory$ 30,000  
 Two Silos at Dairy Barn2,000  
 Poultry Barn and Houses7,000  
 Stock Pens and Yards2,000  
 Fences and Other Farm Construction2,000  
 Cottage for Storage Yard Keeper3,500  
 Improvements in Barn Area3,600  
 Fruit Products Laboratory10,000  
 Horse Barn for Animal Husbandry2,500  
Major Building Projects: 750,000  
 Completing Patton Engineering Hall$200,000  
 Completing Davidson Hall100,000  
 Dormitory for 200 Students150,000  
 Agricultural Departments Building100,000  
 College Auditorium200,000  
Campus Improvements: 61,000  
 Improvement of College Avenue$ 6,000  
 Roads by Sewage Plant and to Pump House10,000  
 Draining and Grading in Creek Area20,000  
 Grading Drill and Recreation Field25,000  

The Biennial Budget As Appropriated

The biennial budget for 1928-30 as recommended by the Governor and followed by the General Assembly contains the following amounts for this institution:

Table III -- Appropriations

 Operation$848,690  $ 848,745  
 Capital Outlays118,890  160,840  
   Total$967,580  $1,009,585  
 Less College Revenue567,315  567,315  
 State Appropriation$400,265  $ 442,270  
 State Loan for Capital Outlays400,000    
Extension Division:     
 Operation$383,000  $ 383,000  
 Capital Outlays1,000  1,000  
   Total$384,000  $ 384,000  
 Less Federal Appropriation186,000  186,000  
 State Appropriation$198,000  $ 198,000  
Experiment Station:     
 Operation$149,500  $ 162,700  
 Capital Outlays7,160  7,650  
   Total$156,660  $ 170,350  
 Less Station Revenue85,665  95,665  
 State Appropriation$ 70,995  $ 74,685  
County Experiment Stations:     
 Operation10,500  $ 10,500  
 Less Stations Revenue500  500  
 State Appropriations$ 10,000  $ 10,000  

Compared with the 1926-28 biennium these are as follows:

Table IV -- Comparison of Appropriations

 Operation$1,381,361  $1,697,435  $316,074  
 Capital Outlays59,900  279,730  219,830  
   Total$1,441,261  $1,977,165  $535,904  
 Less College Revenue852,981  1,134,630  281,649  
 State Appropriation$ 588,280  $ 842,535  $254,255  
 State Loans for Capital Outlays250,000  400,000  150,000  
Extension Division:    
 Total$ 746,610  $ 768,000  $ 21,390  
 Less Federal Appropriation370,610  372,000  1,390  
 State Appropriation$ 376,000  $ 396,000  $ 20,000  
Experiment Station:    
 Total$ 287,023  $ 327,010  $ 39,987  
 Less Station Revenue140,330  181,330  41,000  
 State Appropriation$ 146,693  $ 145,680  (Dec.) 1,013  
County Experiment Stations:    
 Total$ 21,000  $ 21,000  Same  
 Less Stations Revenue1,000  1,000  Same  
 State Appropriations$ 20,000  $ 20,000  Same  

From the tables it is to be noted that, crediting our institutional revenue against the amounts allowed for operation shows an increase of $34,425 (6%) for the biennium in the state appropriation allowed for operation. The increased state appropriation for capital outlays is $219,830, and in addition to this we are to be allowed to borrow from the literary fund $150,000 more than we were allowed in the last biennium, so that the total increase allowed for capital outlays is $369,830. We are to have for expenditure for capital outlays a total of $679,730, as compared with a total for the last biennium of $309,900.

The following are the more important special items included in the recommended budget:

Table V -- Special Items

Central Heating Plant (Loan)$250,000
Dormitory (Loan)150,000
Engineering Hall110,800
Addition to Hospital25,000
Improvements to Old Barracks22,000
Grading Drill Field24,000
Extension of Water Mains11,500
Extension of Sewer Lines5,000
Electrical Laboratory Floor3,700
Dairy Barn West Wing Remodelling6,500
Two Dairy Barn Silos2,000
Addition to Laundry4,000
Heating System Tailor Shop2,225
Horse Barn (Animal Husbandry)2,500
General Repairs20,000
Repairs to Roads and Walks5,000
Barns Area Improvements3,600
Water Meters1,850

The special items were well chosen and represent the most urgent in the list of requests. It is to be regretted that the amounts allowed for equipment in the several departments are much smaller than are needed. This seems to be the only real complaint to be made of the budget. It is gratifying that allowances for expenditure equal to the estimated revenue have been made in the case of the dining hall, tailor shop, laundry, creamery, and printing department. We have been working for this for a long time. On the whole the budget appears to be quite fair and the items to be wisely selected.

Finances And Business Management

Financial statements covering the year closed February 29, 1928, and summaries of the budget for 1928-29 are presented.

Since the new centralized financial control system of the state went into effect March 1, 1928, the budget statements are different from those of previous years. Under the new system the Governor allocates the estimated revenues to specified purposes of expenditure, consequently our budget is pre-determined except for some comparatively minor adjustments and certain interdepartmental transactions.

Table VI -- Financial Statement for the Year March 1, 1927-February 29, 1928


Mch. 1/28
Resvd. &
Accts. Pay.
Mch. 1/28
Administration25,323  ……  25,323  52,410  1,105  53,515  
Agriculture23,538  ……  23,538  73,231  6,556  79,787  
S. H. Agriculture9,812  1,613  11,425  14,011  6  14,017  
Engineering12,708  ……  12,708  84,544  10,172  94,716  
Mechanic Arts28,553  353  28,906  34,310  15,665  49,975  
Printing36,068  13  36,081  32,384……  32,384  
Academic-Science26,791  ……  26,791  99,763  1,706  101,469  
Military702  ……  702  10,571  ……  10,571  
Summer Quarter12,765  ……  12,765  16,954  ……  16,954  
Library8,038  ……  8,038  12,317  66  12,383  
Hospital14,014  ……  14,014  11,752  600  12,352  
Dining HaIL206,518  ……  206,518  166,671  22  166,693  
Tailor Shop56,214  ……  56,214  49,235   ……  49,235  
Laundry27,129  ……  27,129  19,308  2,532  21,840  
Farm11,185  ……  11,185  10,409  ……  10,409  
Dairy Husbandry13,956  ……  13,956  19,631  4  19,635  
Animal Husbandry3,524  ……  3,524  18,914  ……  18,914  
Creamery32,343  493  32,836  33,468  ……  33,468  
Heat & Power Plant46,021  ……  46,021  44,223  7,500  51,723  
Electric Service40,735  184  40,919  23,450  184  23,634  
Plbg., Sewer, Water  9,931  ……  9,931  63,847  3,550  67,397  
Buildings & Grounds140,627  1,097  141,724  295,359  41,473  336,833  
Sinking Fund4,600  ……  4,600  16,804  ……  16,804  
Student Loans……  ……  ……  1,500  ……  1,500  
Contingent8,581  ……  8,581  10,593  ……  10,593  
College Depts.  799,676  3,753  803,429  1,215,659  91,141  1,306,801  
Balance Mch. 1/1927123,065  ……  123,065  ……  ……  ……  
Federal Appropr’n53,992  ……  53,992  ……  ……  ……  
State Appropr’n326,315  ……  326,315  ……  ……  ……  
Gross Bal. 3/1/28……  87,388  ……  87,388  ……  ……  
Total for 1926-271  1,075,825  141,060  1,093,821  1,075,825  141,060  1,093,821

  (A) Total Receipts (column 2) exceeded Total Disbursements (column 5) by $87,388, the Gross Balance on March 1, 1928.
  (B) Accounts Receivable and Balance on Hand March 1, 1928 (column 3) equal Accounts Payable and Reserves (column 6).
  (C) The Total Disbursements, Accounts Payable and Reserves, for 1927-28 (column 7) equal the Total Revenue (column 4).

The financial statements show that the institution is in excellent financial condition, having been operated within the available revenue. From Table VI it is seen that we closed the year with a cash balance on hand sufficient to cover all outstanding obligations. Because of the new centralized control system of the state, which went into effect March 1, 1928, it was necessary to make a complete settlement with the state comptroller and state treasurer. Table VII gives the revenue produced during the past year, and the inventory of supplies on hand at the end of the year as compared with the preceding year. The inventory of $51,107 should be added to the cash balance on hand to get the amount to our credit at the beginning of the current year. There are no outstanding obligations against this inventory, hence it is essentially an unencumbered cash balance on hand. Table VIII is the consolidated balance sheet as at February 29, 1928.

Table VII -- Business Statement for the Year March 1, 1927- February 28, 1928


Mch. 1/27
Mch. 1/28
Net Rev.
Mch. 1/27
Mch. 1/28
Administration……  25,323  ……  25,323  ……  ……  
Agriculture……  23,538  ……  23,538  459  888  
S. H. Agriculture……  9,812  1,613  11,425  ……  ……  
Engineering  201  12,708  ……  12,507  ……  ……  
Mechanic Arts……  28,553  353  28,906  8,257  7,633  
Printing  300  36,068  13  35,781  2,754  1,790  
Academic-Science……  26,791  ……  26,791  ……  ……  
Military……  702  ……  702  ……  ……  
Summer Quarter……  12,765  ……  12,765  ……  ……  
Library……  8,038  ……  8,038  ……  ……  
Hospital……  14,014  ……  14,014  ……  ……  
Dining Hall……  206,518  ……  206,518  8,503  5,239  
Tailor Shop……  56,214  ……  56,214  15,634  15,849  
Laundry……  27,129  ……  27,129  542  477  
Farm……  11,185  ……  11,185  2,465  3,175  
Dairy Husbandry……  13,956  ……  13,956  514  937  
Animal Husbandry……  3,524  ……  3,524  723  905  
Creamery……  32,343  493  32,836  350  855  
Heat & Power Plant……  46,021  ……  46,021  3,758  5,500  
Electric Service  40  40,735  184  40,879  2,547  1,363  
Plbg., Sewer, Water……  9,931  ……  9,931  250  430  
Buildings & Grounds  980  140,627  1,097  140,744  4,414  6,057  
Sinking Fund……  4,600  ……  4,600  ……  ……  
Contingent……  8,581  ……  8,581  ……  ……  
Total  1,521  799,676  3,753  801,908  51,170  51,107  
Total for 1926-27  2,548  636,266  1,521  635,239  41,496  51,170  

  The Net Revenue produced in 1927-28 (column 5) is the Total Receipts (column 3) less the Accounts Receivable at the beginning of the year (column 2) plus the Accounts Receivable at the end of the year (column 4).
  The Inventory (columns 6 and 7) includes only supplies on hand for early consumption and nothing of a permanent nature, thus being essentially the same as cash on hand for operation, and it might be properly included in the Gross Balance in Table VI.

Table VIII -- Consolidated Balance Sheet-As at February 29, 1928

(Exclusive of Agricultural Experiment Stations and Extension Division)

I. Current:
 Cash in hands of Treasurer   $87,388
 Imprest Cash:
  Student Loans$24,910
  Workmen's Compensation18,42343,333
 Accounts Receivable: 3,753
 Supplies Inventory   51,107  $185,581
II. Endowment:
 From Land Grant Act of Congress, 1862  344,312
III. Funded Debt:
 Buildings and Equipment Sinking Funds  25,828
IV. Physical Plant:
 Land (722 acres at $350 average) 252,700
  Less Depreciation Reserve, 10%264,000  2,376,000
 Central Heat Distribution System104,000
  Less Depreciation Reserve, 3%3,120100,880
 Electric Service Distribution System28,000
  Less Depreciation Reserve, 10%2,80025,200
 Water Supply System19,500
  Less Depreciation Reserve, 10%1,95017,550
 Sewerage System105,000
  Less Depreciation Reserve, 25%3,150101,850
 Departmental Equipment and Library796,000
  Less Depreciation Reserve, 5%39,800756,200
 Livestock 53,0003,683,380
I. Current:
 Reserve for Imprest Cash $43,333
 Reserve for Accounts Payable, etc. 91,141
 Reserve for Supplies 51,107$185,581
II. Endowment:
 Reserve for Land Grant Fund  344,312
III. Funded Debt:
 Buildings and Equipment Bonds, 1900  75,000
IV. Physical Plant:
 Debt on Black Farm 17,176
 Balance Owing on Professors’ Houses 11,894
 Borrowed under the Noell Act 250,000
 Equity of Town in Sewage Disposal Plant46,800
 Unencumbered Investment in Physical Plant 3,308,3383,634,208

The Working Budget For 1928-29

The working budget for the year which began March 1, 1928· as approved by the Board, is presented in tables IX, X, and XI.

Table IX -- Summary of Budget for the Year March 1, 1928-February 28, 1929


Administration1,100  400  1,500  41,740  10,345  49,085  
Agriculture13,500  ……  13,500  78,150  3,225  81,375  
S. H. Agriculture11,500  ……  11,500  15,440  525  15,965  
Engineering1,300  ……  1,300  90,800  2,575  93,375  
Mechanic Arts5,000  5,900  10,900  29,000  4,150  33,150  
Printing23,500  9,500  33,000  32,560  440  33,000  
Academic-Science1,200  ……  1,200  115,650  500  116,150  
Military600  ……  600  9,300  750  10,050  
Summer Quarter11,310  ……  11,310  11,875  5,525  17,400  
Library6,600  ……  6,600  11,725  825  12,550  
Hospital12,200  ……  12,200  37,850  1,750  39,600  
Dining Hall175,100  5,300  180,400  158,340  21,925  180,265  
Tailor Shop50,000  ……  50,000  49,475  525  50,000  
Laundry23,500  1,200  24,700  18,425  3,850  22,275  
Farm6,600  3,400  10,000  12,225  450  12,675  
Dairy Husbandry1,100  13,400  14,500  20,660  5,475  26,135  
Animal Husbandry3,500  ……  3,500  11,900  575  12,475  
Creamery ~19,800  12,800  32,600  17,325  15,825  33,150  
Heat & Power Plant200  12,800  13,000  296,125  2,650  298,775  
Electric Service19,600  13,500  33,100  12,950  10,075  23,025  
Plbg., Sewer, Water2,500  3,000  5,500  25,875  325  26,200  
Buildings & Grounds9,500  18,200  27,700  250,400  7,115  260,515  
Sinking Funds21,340  ……  21,340  22,090  ……  22,090  
Student Loans2,800  ……  2,800  4,300  ……  4,300  
College Depts.423,350  99,400  522,750  1,374,180  99,400  1,473,580  
Fees Unallocated103,460  ……  103,460  ……  ……  ……  
Federal Appro’n47,105  ……  47,105  ……  ……  ……  
State Appro’n400,265  ……  400,265  ……  ……  ……  
Noell Act Loans400,000  ……  400,000  ……  ……  ……  

  The Receipts (columns 2 and 3) are estimated on the basis of the income of preceding years. The term "Regular" applies to the Governor’s budget and funds handled by the State Comptroller; and the term "Interdepartmental" applies to transactions within the institution not affecting State funds. Column 4 is the total of columns 2 and 3.
  The proposed allocations for expenditure from appropriated funds are included in column 5 and those for interdepartmental transactions in column 6, with total in column 7. Tables X and XI show these allocations in greater detail.
  The Unallocated Student Fees include registration, tuition, laboratory, maintenance. and room fees.

Table X -- Allocations for the Year March 1, 1928-February 28, 1929


Charges, etc.
Administration29,750  9,915  7,345  300  1,775  49,085  
Agriculture  65,000  10,525  3,225  2,500  125  81,375  
S. H. Agriculture  12,265  2,375  525  800  ……  15,965  
Engineering  80,600  2,325  2,575  7,700  175  93,375  
Mechanic Arts  22,100  5,725  4,150  1,000  175  33,150  
Printing  14,700  13,985  440  3,875  ……  33,000  
Academic-Science  107,000  5,850  500  2,500  300  116,150  
Military  7,500  1,625  750  150  25  10,050  
Summer Quarter  11,550  100  5,525  ……  225  17,400  
Library  8,000  1,200  825  2,500  25  12,550  
Hospital  10,000  2,400  1,750  25,400  50  39,600  
Dining Hall  33,000  120,540  21,925  2,000  2,800  180,265  
Tailor Shop  13,000  33,300  525  2,225  950  50,000  
Laundry  11,000  3,125  3,850  4,000  300  22,275  
Farm  5,500  4,325  450  400  2,000  12,675  
Dairy Husbandry,  5,750  14,200  5,475  250  460  26,135  
Animal Husbandry  3,750  7,375  575  750  25  12,475  
Creamery  3,200  13,575  15,825  550  ……  33,150  
Heat & Power Plant  11,500  34,025  2,650  250,000  600  298,775  
Electric Service  4,000  5,750  10,075  3,100  100  23,025  
Plbg., Sewer, Water  4,250  4,875  325  16,750  ……  26,200  
Buildings & Grounds  29,000  35,700  10,115  179,500  6,200  260,515  
Sinking Funds  ……  ……  ……  ……  22,090  22,090  
Student Loans  ……  ……  ……  ……  4,300  4,300  
  492,415  332,815  99,400  506,250  42,700  1,473,580  

  A-Salaries, Wages, and Special Payments; B-Repairs, Light, Heat, Power, Travel, Transportation, Communication. Printing, etc.j C-Food, Fuel, Laboratory, Office, and other Supplies; D-Building, Highway, and other Materials; E-Office, Laboratory, and other Equipment (in columns 3 and 4 for replacement, in column 5 for additions); F-Buildings and other Structures, Land and Land Improvements (pipe-lines, roads, walks, fences, etc.) : G-Rent, Insurance, Refunds; I-Interest; J-Rotary Funds.
  These allocations are included in the totals shown in Table IX. Distribution of the totals for the agricultural, engineering, and academic-science divisions are shown in Table XI.

Table XI -- Allocations to Instructional Departments for 1928-29


Division and
Prsnl Serv.


Agricultural Div.:DollarsDollarsDollarsDollarsDollarsDollars  
    General (Dean)……  400  ……  ……  ……  ……  
    Repairs……  ……  300  ……  ……  ……  
    Fuel & Electricity……  1,350  200  ……  ……  ……  
Agric. Chemistry……  25  ……  100  ……  ……  
Agric. Economics……  25  ……  100  ……  ……  
Agric. Engineering……  600  200  400  ……  ……  
Agronomy……  150  50  300  ……  ……  
Botany & Plt. Path.……  200  50  300  ……  ……  
Dairy Husbandry……  50  300  100  ……  ……  
Home Economics50  250  450  500  50  ……  
Home Ec. Dorm.1,000  2,275  725  300  100  4,200  
Horticulture……  200  100  50  ……  200  
Poultry Husbandry700  3,500  500  400  100  4,800  
Zoology & An. Path.2,850  1,000  100  450  ……  4,300  
Total: Agriculture4,600  10,025  2,975  3,000  250  13,500  
Engineering Div.:       
    General (Dean)……  300  200  150  150  ……  
Ap. Mech. & Exp.Eng……  300  100  1,000  ……  ……  
Engineering Exp. Sta.600  200  800  1,000  ……  ……  
Civil Engineering……  200  50  250  ……  ……  
Electrical Engineering……  400  50  1,000  ……  ……  
Graphics700  400  300  100  ……  1,300  
Metallurgy……  50  ……  50  ……  ……  
Mining Engineering……  50  ……  50  ……  ……  
Power Engineering……  50  ……  50  ……  ……  
Engineering Ext. Div.……  100  600  ……  ……  ……  
Chem. Engineering……  125  325  500  ……  ……  
Total: Engineering1,300  2,175  2,425  4,150  150  1,300  
Academic-Sci. Div.:       
    General (Dean)……  100  ……  ……  ……  ……  
    Fuel……  1,500  ……  ……  125  ……  
Business Admin.……  50  25  250  ……  ……  
Economics & History……  50  ……  25  ……  ……  
Chemistry……  1,800  100  1,700  ……  1,050  
English  ……  150  ……  100  ……  ……  
Foreign Languages……  50  ……  25  ……  ……  
Geology……  150  100  100  ……  ……  
Mathematics  ……  50  ……  100  ……  ……  
Physical Education……  250  50  200  ……  ……  
Physics……  700  100  1,000  ……  150  
Total: Academic-Sci.……  4,850  375  3,500  125  1,200  

  Items in column 2 are chargeable against departmental credits or else are to cover temporary employment not on regular payroll.
  Classifications same as in Table X. All of these allocations are included in the totals of the respective divisions in Tables IX and X; and estimated departmental credits are included in the totals in column 4 of Table IX.

Report Of The Education Commission

Prior to the special session of the General Assembly in the spring of 1927, I repeatedly made the statement that a survey of the educational institutions of the state should be made, with a view to fact-finding and making recommendations based on these facts. I stated that it seemed to me to be essential that such a survey should be made by a carefully selected commission of educational experts from outside of Virginia, none of whom has ever been connected in any way with education in this state.

The special session of the General Assembly enacted legislation for a survey, but provided that in addition to the survey staff of outside educational experts there should be a commission of Virginia citizens to consider the survey staff’s report and make recommendations. The survey staff made its report with a large number of recommendations, and the commission followed with a briefer list of recommendations.

In my judgment this institution cannot possibly endorse some of the recommendations of the commission. However, in practically every case, we should endorse the findings of the survey staff so far as these apply to the Virginia Polytechnic Institute. The recommendations of the commission appear to us to be widely divergent from the findings of the survey staff as they relate to this institution. Members of the survey staff visited this institution and secured a large amount of data concerning every phase of it. No member of the commission visited this institution, and with one exception the members of the commission have never been to Blacksburg, at any time for any reason, and have never sought information from us. We carefully avoided any attempt to introduce ourselves into the deliberations of the commission either directly or indirectly, being entirely willing to leave our interests to the survey staff of "outside educational experts," whose findings we fully believed would be followed by the commission in its recommendations.

When the report of the commission of citizens was made we were shocked and disappointed that the recommendations were, in a number of vital respects affecting this institution, contrary to the findings and recommendations of the survey staff of educational experts. In the General Assembly of 1928, however, the report of the commission received comparatively little serious attention, and none of its recommendations affecting this institution in any significant way were enacted into law.

There is, therefore, no need to enter into a discussion of our objections to the recommendations which appeared so unwise and undesirable from our standpoint. On the other hand, there are some recommendations, chiefly of the survey staff rather than of the commission, which are worthy of our careful consideration. These are summarized in a quotation from the report:

Educational Survey Recommendations

“The V. P. I. is imperatively in need of the following:

“1. Increase of salaries for all capable members of the instructional force at least twenty per cent with maximum for full professor raised to $6,000.00.

“2. Adequate provisions for a fund to supplement Federal funds for the promotion of research in every phase of agriculture and engineering in Virginia.

“3. Funds adequate to provide for instruction in and encouragement of horticulture, dairying, poultry producing, trucking, veterinary science, forestry, development of water power, rural electrification, and the use of power and machinery on the farm and in the farm home.

“4. A fund adequate to complete a soils survey of the entire State and the dissemination of the facts gained and their bearing upon agriculture of the state through publications and institutes.

“5. A fund to promote investigation of and instruction in rural social science and the dissemination of knowledge in rural sociology among the rural population of the state through publications and institutes.

“6. Adequate provisions for expansion of extension work in agriculture, engineering, and rural sociology.

“7. A fund for the maintenance of summer work in home economics and rural social service.

“8. A radio broadcasting station for the purpose of broadcasting information designed to disseminate knowledge which may be of interest or value to rural people.

“9. Adequate provisions should be made for resident and extension service in industrial chemistry as it relates to conditions and possibilities in Virginia.

“10. Provisions should be made for instruction in coal mining and in architectural and structural engineering adapted to the conditions in Virginia.

“11. The institute should be adequately equipped for resident and extension instruction in all branches of applied science affecting home and farm life. .

“12. The institute should have an adequate fund to provide dormitory facilities and laboratory, instructional and practice facilities for home economics so that women may receive a modern training in all phases of this subject.”

Observations Resulting From The Educational Survey

After a study of the report of the Survey Staff and the report of the Virginia Educational Commission, I am offering the following observations as to some of the outcomes of the survey for this institution as I see them:

1. Unquestionably there must be an immediate re-appraisement and re-evaluation of all of our activities, which requires that each and every department in every division of the institution, shall scrutinize its work with a view to determining what contribution it is making to the agricultural, commercial and industrial development of Virginia.

2. Courses in whatever department which for some time have registered very few students should be eliminated from the catalog.

3. We should seek the elimination of liberal arts courses which are not required in the curricula for which there is a real demand among our students.

4. Our pre-professional curricula should be brought into full identity with the first and second years of certain four-year curricula for which there is an unquestioned demand, and those which cannot be so revised should be eliminated.

5. Our curricula in business administration and commercial engineering should be revised and made more directly applicable to practise, particularly to meet the needs of industry, trade, and transportation in Virginia.

6. We should see that our work in home economics stresses strongly the preparation of students for rural home-making and rural community service.

7. Serious attention must be given to student personnel, which involves admission requirements and tests, student educational and vocational guidance, and student placement for employment.

8. A study should be made of the apparently wide range of standards in student marking in the various departments, seeking the cause for the unusual number of classes in which no failures are reported in this college, and facing the results of the study frankly and fearlessly to the end of correcting and improving where it is needed.

9. As thorough a study as possible should be made of departmental per capita costs, and comparisons made with other institutions as far as comparable data may be available.

10. Since it seems inevitable that as time goes on the students attending a college must be called upon to bear a larger and larger share of the cost of instruction, a study should be made of the situation at this college on the basis of which recommendations may be made.

11. The scholarship situation should be studied to determine as accurately as possible the effect of abolishing state scholarships in all of the institutions; and an effort made to formulate a plan whereby the incentive to scholarship now offered through the scholarship system at this college may be retained in the event that the regular state scholarships are abolished.

12. Our agricultural curricula should be studied with a view to strengthening some of the curricula or eliminating them; and courses in little demand should be omitted from the catalog.

13. Our engineering work in the departments that mean most to Virginia’s industrial development must be greatly strengthened, at all cost; and this must take precedence over expansion although there is apparent need for the addition of courses in architectural and structural engineering.

14. We should develop as intensively and extensively as possible, without delay, research and graduate work in engineering and applied science, but particularly research relating to industry in Virginia.

15. We must develop a truly serviceable extension division in engineering and applied science to meet the rapidly growing needs and possibilities for development of Virginia industry.

16. Serious and immediate attention must be given to ways and means of establishing complete liaison with industry and business throughout Virginia, to the end that our facilities may be used to the utmost in the promotion of Virginia’s development.

17. This college has now reached a stage in its development when the focus should be shifted from the material side to the human side, from considerations of physical plant to considerations of men and service.

18. Variation must be made from the fixed salary schedule to reward members of the staff whose accomplishments bring prestige to the institution, whose extraordinary labors contribute in a marked degree to the development of their departments, and whose efforts to better prepare themselves by advanced study and research for the work they are doing bring benefit to the institution.

19. Outstanding men in certain fields of education, science, and industry, as teachers, investigators, inventors, authors, supervising engineers, etc., men well -- and favorably -- known in their professions, with more than local reputation, must be induced to join our staff, by providing sufficiently large salaries for such exceptional cases and sufficiently ample facilities for the work of such men.

Development Of Research

In my introduction to a bulletin published in January, 1927, concerning research and publication activities of our staff, I said:

“The public often fails to appreciate the fact that the contribution which such an institution makes to the life of its state and nation through scientific investigation, and publications containing valuable information broadcast to many thousands removed from college walls, is of vastly more importance in many instances than the instruction given to the few hundreds of fortunate young people who can attend classes. However this may be. it may be said with confidence that a college faculty in which there is little or no interest in research and in productive publication, may hardly claim to be professionally alive; and that a college which does not encourage such activities on the part of its faculty is missing what is perhaps its greatest opportunity for service to the people who support it.”

The report of the staff engaged to make the recent educational survey in Virginia contains the following:

“Virginia Polytechnic Institute now receives funds for research from federal sources; the state should supplement federal funds by grants for research as specified below.

“In the aid of research work, the executive officers of the higher institutions should be instructed:

(a) To adjust the teaching load of capable members of the faculty in the departments in which research should be encouraged so as to allow time for research work.

(b) Clerical assistance should be provided for research workers with a view to reducing the time devoted to routine and clerical work.

(c) Productive research should be rewarded by suitable promotions in rank and increase in salary.

(d) Leave of absence with pay should be granted for research workers who have shown that they can utilize leave of absence for the promotion of their research work.

(e) As rapidly as possible research professorships should be established.

(f) Members of the faculty should be aided by financial assistance to attend the meetings of learned societies in their particular field so that they may be stimulated and encouraged to do productive work.

“Research work in each and all the higher institutions should for a considerable period be directed toward the promotion of the material and social advancement of Virginia. Funds for research should be expended for work having to do with Virginia physical and social conditions rather than for pure research having no immediate or direct reference to conditions in Virginia. In due course, funds should be provided for research in every field of knowledge without special reference to Virginia problems; but research of this type should be deferred for the present.

“The Virginia Polytechnic Institute should be equipped with resources for the investigation of every unsolved problem in agriculture and engineering in the state. Students of ability should be encouraged by scholarships to remain at V. P. I. after securing their bachelor degrees in order to undertake the investigation of technical agricultural and engineering problems in the state . . . Graduate work and research work are, or should be, phases of one and the same educational activity.

“The V. P. I. is imperatively in need of adequate provisions for a fund to supplement federal funds for the promotion of research in every phase of agriculture, and engineering in Virginia.

With all of this I am in hearty accord, and I wish to impress upon the Board the great importance of developing to the fullest possible extent our research activities in agriculture, including home economics, and in engineering. Our state has undoubtedly entered upon a marvellously promising era of industrial expansion, and many agencies are now at work in this direction. At the same time it is recognized that our agricultural interests will continue to be of great importance, and the recent General Assembly provided for a commission to study agricultural conditions with a view to making recommendations for betterment. Unquestionably those interested in the development of both agriculture and industry in Virginia have a right to look to this institution to assist in no mean degree, and they will expect it. Scientific investigation and experimentation form the basis for all permanent progress, the source of improved methods and processes in the development of our untold economic resources. Therefore, it is incumbent upon us to develop the research activities of this institution as rapidly as possible to meet the needs of both agriculture and industry in Virginia.

There are ways and means now at our disposal for doing this in considerable degree, and definite plans will be recommended from time to time as they are formulated.


In addition to the recommendation of the survey staff that the salaries of capable members of the faculty be increased at least twenty per cent and that the maximum for full professors be raised to $6,000, the Educational Commission in its report says:

“The commission is satisfied both from the report of the survey staff and its own observations that the salaries now paid in many of the institutions will not suffice either to retain or attract teaching personnel of high character and ability. While the commission does not approve a horizontal increase in all salaries, it unhesitatingly recommends:

“That the executives and Boards of Visitors of the several institutions make such increases in salaries as funds will permit and as will insure the maintenance of the high standard of scholarship for which Virginia institutions are so justly famed.”

In my judgment, if we are to maintain the standing of a professional school of engineering, at least, we must greatly increase the maximum for salaries of the dean and heads of certain leading departments. While this is true particularly for engineering, where it is most difficult because of the attractions of the industrial and commercial field to secure the highest type of men for a college faculty, it is also true in other divisions of our work. In the interest of Virginia and her industrial development we should seek the best-equipped men we can find, regardless of the salary scale, for at least a few strategic positions on our staff. I am convinced that, at this particular time, this is the most important problem faced by this institution, and it is hoped that the Board will indicate how we should proceed.

Faculty Standards

The tendency throughout the country is to standardize and raise the requirements for faculty membership. The Association of Colleges of the Southern States, upon which this institution is dependent for its rating as a standard college, sets up the following standard for the training of the faculty:

“The training of the members of the faculty of professorial rank should include at least two years of study in their respective fields of teaching in a fully organized and recognized graduate school. The training of the head of a department should be equivalent to that required for the doctor’s degree, or should represent a corresponding professional or technical training. A college will be judged in large part by the ratio which the number of persons of profesorial rank with sound training, scholarly achievement, and successful experience as teachers, bears to the total number of the teaching staff. Honorary degrees are not recognized as a qualification for teachers.”

The University of Illinois, which maintains its own accrediting bureau, and makes its own searching inquiry into the operation of an institution before accepting its graduates at full value, sets up the following standard:

“A minimum educational attainment of all college teachers of academic subjects equivalent to graduation from a college of high grade. For faculty members of professorial rank, graduate work equal to that required for the master’s degree at the University of Illinois. Further graduate study and training in research equivalent to that required for the Ph.D. degree are recommended, especially for heads of departments.”

Should we be unable to maintain full rating it would be not only embarrassing but it would involve a hardship on our students and be not creditable for our state. It seemed, therefore, necessary for us to take steps to remedy any deficiencies as rapidly as practicable. To this end, I presented for the consideration of the Board the following:

Minimum Requirements For Faculty Membership

  1. Assistants and Instructors (not including undergraduate student assistants):
  2. Bachelor’s Degree from a standard institution.
  3. Assistant and Associate Professors:
  4.   (A) Master’s Degree from a standard institution, representing at least one year of graduate work in addition to the Bachelor’s Degree, plus at least one year’s experience in teaching; or

      (B) Professional Engineering Degree from a standard institution, representing at least one year of graduate work (or at least three years of professional experience where the institution accepts this in lieu of resident work), plus at least one year’s experience in teaching or in the practise of the profession represented (three years when the degree is based on professional experience in lieu of resident graduate work).

  5. Professors:
  6.   (A) Doctor’s Degree from a standard university, plus at least two years experience in teaching or in professional work in the field represented; or

      (B) Graduate work in a standard university at least one year in advance of the Master’s Degree, plus at least four years experience in teaching or in professional work in the field represented; or

      (C) Professional Engineering Degree as in 2 (B), plus at least six years experience in teaching or in the practise of the profession represented.

  7. Heads of Departments:
  8.   (A) Doctor’s Degree as in 3 (A), plus at least five years’ experience in teaching or in the practise of the profession represented; or

      (B) Professional Engineering Degree as in 3 (C), plus at least nine years’ experience in teaching or in the practise of the profession represented.

    In the application of the foregoing:

    1. Honorary degrees will not be considered.
    2. There must be satisfactory evidence as to the type of teaching or professional experience and the success of the same.
    3. These standards are intended primarily for the resident instruction staff, and will not necessarily be applied to extension and research workers.
    4. Beginning July 1, 1928, promotions in faculty rank and advance in salary will be made only when these standards are met.
    5. Beginning July 1, 1929, members of the resident instruction staff will be required to meet these standards to hold their faculty ranks.
    6. Except as provided in the foregoing the present schedule of salaries will be followed; but in the case of a faculty member who, by reason of exceptional achievement, service to the college, standing in his profession, or other circumstances, is recognized as an outstanding man, the maximum salary schedule for any . faculty group may be exceeded at the discretion of the Board.

The Board approved the proposed minimum requirements for faculty membership, and our practise will proceed accordingly. It is believed that this may be done without any radical or revolutionary measures, and that no unreasonable inconvenience or hardship will be brought upon desirable members of the present staff.


In the appendix will be found certain statistics and financial data for the year. If the tables included here are read in connection with similar tables published in the volume of reports for the six years, 1919-20 to 1924-20, inclusive (Bulletin of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Vol. XX, No. 3x, April, 1927), and the reports for the two years 1920-26 and 1926-27 (Bulletin of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Vol. XX, No.6, September, 1927), a continuous statistical and financial record for the college may be had from July 1, 1919, to July 1, 1928. It is to be noted that the general report covers a year which ended on June 30 while the financial data apply to a year ended February 29.

My personal as well as official appreciation is expressed to members of the Board, to members of the staffs of the institution, to alumni and other friends and supporters of the institution, for the encouragement and help they have given during the year. Matters of great importance to the future of the institution have been before us for consideration this year. Some decisions of far-reaching significance have been reached, and the way has been prepared for others in the near future.

Respectfully submitted,

JULIAN A. BURRUSS, President. June 30, 1928.

1919-1929 Reports

Early President's Reports were published in bulletins, with multiple reports in each bulletin. Note that the original spelling of many words (enrolment, remodelling, etc.) has been retained.

1930-1931 Report


General Report of the President

Reports of

The Dean of the College

The Dean of Agriculture

The Dean of Engineering

The Chairman of the Summer Quarter

The Committee on Graduate Programs and Degrees

The Director of the Agricultural Experiment Station

The Director of the Engineering Experiment Station

The Director of the Agricultural Extension Division

The Director of the Engineering Extension Division

The Librarian

The Adviser to Women Students

The Health Officer

The Secretary of the Young Men’s Christian Association

Statistical Tables

Statistics of Enrolment and Graduation

Summary of Treasurer’s Reports

1929-1930 Report


General Report of the President

Reports of

The Dean of the College

The Dean of Agriculture

The Dean of Engineering

The Chairman of the Summer Quarter

The Committee on Graduate Programs and Degrees

The Director of the Agricultural Experiment Station

The Director of the Engineering Experiment Station

The Director of the Agricultural Extension Division

The Director of the Engineering Extension Division

The Librarian

The Adviser to Women Students

The Health Officer

The Secretary of the Young Men’s Christian Association

Statistical Tables

Statistics of Enrolment and Graduation

Summary of Treasurer’s Reports

1927-1928, 1928-1929 Reports


1927-1928 -- General Report

1928-1929 -- General Report


Enrolment Statistics

Summary of Treasurer's Reports

1925-26, 1926-27 Reports

1925-1927 Introduction

1925-1926 -- General Report

1926-1927 -- General Report


Appointments, Tenure, and Salaries

Vacations, Office Hours, Records, etc.

Enrolment Statistics

Summary of Treasurer's Reports

1919-1925 Reports



1919-1920 Report

Preliminary Statement

First General Report

Second General Report

Special Report on Instruction

Special Report on Organization

1920-1921—General Report For The Year

1921-1922—General Report For The Year

1922-1923—General Report For The Year

1923-1924—General Report For The Year

1924-1925—General Report For The Year

Enrolment Statistics

Summary of Treasurer's Reports