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1926-1927 General Report For The Year

To the Honorable, The Board of Visitors of the Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College and Polytechnic Institute:

Gentlemen:

I have the honor to submit the following general report of the institution for the year which began July 1, 1926, and ended June 30, 1927:

Board Of Visitors

To fill vacancies caused by the expiration of the terms of four members of the Board on July 1, 1926, the Governor appointed Messrs. J. Marshall Lewis, Robert S. Moss, and T. Gilbert Wood to succeed themselves; and Hon. Robert A. Russell in place of Mr. Frank S. Walker; all for the four-year term extending to July 1, 1930.

Changes In Staff

Deaths: Ewing W. Lawson, Sheep Specialist, Agricultural Extension Division; J. Gilbert Price, Instructor in Mechanic Arts.

Leaves Of Absence: J. F. Eheart, Assistant Chemist, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1926-27; Martha D. Dinwiddie, Associate Professor of Home Economics, February-May, 1927.

Resignations And Expiration Of Terms: B. C. Cubbage, Associate Professor of Physical Education; James Duff, Assistant Professor of English; C. R. Willey, Assistant Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment Station; Bruce Greenshields, Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering; H. G. Iddings, Assistant Dairy Husbandman, Agricultural Extension Division; A. R. MacMillan, Assistant Professor of Military Science and Tactics, Assistant Commandant of Cadets; Helen Ricks, Acting State Agent for Girls' Clubs, Agricultural Extension Division; H. G. Pickett, Acting Assistant Professor of Chemistry; H. G. Cutright, Assistant Professor of Business Administration; R. D. Walston, Assistant Professor of Industrial Education; W. J. Caulfield, Assistant Dairy Husbandman, Agricultural Extension Division; G. L. Booker, Instructor in Poultry Husbandry; J. B. Cole, Assistant Agricultural Engineer, Agricultural Extension Division; E. L. Langsford, Assistant Agricultural Economist, Agricultural Experiment Station; L. J. Bray, Instructor in English; W. G. Tompkins, Instructor in Engineering Drawing; G. A. Van Lear, Instructor in Physics; J. A. Brame, Instructor in Business Administration; W. G. Nunn, Instructor in Agricultural Engineering, Assistant Agricultural Engineer, Agricultural Experiment Station; L. K. Parker, Assistant Agricultural Engineer, Agricultural Extension Division; T. C. Maurer, Assistant Agronomist, Agricultural Extension Division; C. N. Priode, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Agricultural Experiment Station; Esther Derring, Assistant Librarian; Helen Woodruff, Assistant Librarian.

Promotions: C. L. Pickard, Assistant Specialist in Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension Division, Assistant Rural Sociologist, Agricultural Experiment Station; H. B. Redd, Assistant Professor of Physical Education, Alumni Secretary; N. P. Lawrence, Assistant Professor of English.

Appointments: Martha D. Dinwiddie, Adviser to Women Students; D. C. Heitshu, Assistant Agricultural Engineer, Agricultural Experiment Station; W. H. Byrne, Assistant Agronomist, Agricultural Extension Division; F. W. HofMann, Associate Horticulturist, Agricultural Experiment Station; F. H. Fish, Assistant Professor of Chemistry and Experimental Engineering; Jere Turpin, Assistant Professor of Business Administration; J. F. D. Smith, Assistant Professor of Engineering Drawing; R. E. Hussey, Assistant Professor of Chemistry; A. F. Gustafson, Assistant Professor of Physical Education; W. J. Caulfield, Assistant Dairy Husbandman, Agricultural Extension Division; J. L. Scott, Assistant Professor of Military Science and Tactics, Assistant Commandant of Cadets; V. R. Hillman, Assistant Professor of Agricultural Engineering, Assistant Agricultural Engineer, Agricultural Experiment Station; W. G. Nunn, Assistant Agricultural Engineer, Agricultural Extension Division; R. H. Chestnutt, Assistant Agricultural Engineer, Agricultural Extension Division; M. S. Kipps, Instructor in Agronomy; L. E. Fuller, Instructor in English; T: A. Keck, Instructor in Physics; G. T. Baird, Instructor in Business Administration; M. L. Peacock, Instructor in English; V. O. Johns, Instructor in Economics; Z. A. Wissinger, Instructor in Physical Education; W. T. Hartman, Instructor in Civil Engineering; M. P. Miller, Assistant Chemist, Agricultural Experiment Station; H. Farley, Assistant Animal Pathologist, Agricultural Experiment Station, Instructor in Animal Pathology; Katharine Holtzclaw, Instructor in Home Economics; A. M. Woodside, Assistant Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment Station; J. L. Maxton, Assistant Agricultural Economist, Agricultural Experiment Station; A. G. Peterson, Assistant Agricultural Economist, Agricultural Experiment Station.

Losses By Death

During the year the institution suffered the loss by death of two valuable members of its staffs. In January we lost Mr. Ewing W. Lawson, who had been sheep specialist in the agricultural extension division for about two years, during which he had rendered valuable service and had become quite popular with all with whom he came in contact. In April death removed from our instructional group Mr. J. Gilbert Price, of the department of mechanic arts. For thirty-eight years he served the college faithfully and most efficiently, he was ever loyal to its interests, and he possessed an unusually high degree of skill in his chosen work.

Summer Activities

Numerous activities in connection with improvements to the physical plant were in progress on the campus during the summer of 1926.

The summer quarter was fairly well attended and the work seemed to be quite satisfactory.

The farmers’ institute was preceded by a conference of a week for the Smith-Hughes agricultural high school instructors of the state, by a meeting of the Virginia farm bureau federation, and by a meeting of the agricultural advisory council. Following came the annual boys’ and girls’ short course. Earlier in the summer a school for electric metermen was held. A conference of fertilizer men was also held here and well attended.

   

World War Memorial Hall World War Memorial Hall Dedicated October 23, 1926, and now in use.

   

Fhysical and Social Activities Group Fhysical and Social Activities Group Recreation field -- Gymnasium, etc. -- Stadium

Certificates Of Merit In Agriculture

During the farmers’ institute in the summer of 1926, four certificates of merit for outstanding contributions to the agricultural interests of Virginia were awarded to: Miss Ella G. Agnew, of Burkeville; Major J. T. Cowan, of Whitethorn; Mr. J. G. Eberwine, of Deans, and Mr. Joseph A. Turner, of Hollins.

It will be recalled that previous to this such certificates had been awarded as follows: 1923 -- Dr. W. B. Alwood and Mr. J. F. Jackson; 1924-Dr. H. W. McLaughlin and Hon. A. J. McMath.

The Year Of 1926-27

The college year recently closed was quite satisfactory in many respects. The health of the students was excellent. There was no death among them, and few cases of sickness of a serious nature. The morale of the student-body was high, and the scholarship was better than usual.

Progress was made in practically all departments of the institution. Crowded conditions continued in the dormitories, but these will fortunately be relieved next session.

During the year many meetings of agricultural, engineering, and scientific organizations were held at the college, and our relations with other institutions and the outside world in general were substantially improved and extended. A special effort was made to strengthen our alumni organization, and we are encouraged with the results secured. During the year we have secured the gift of a $5,000 scholarship fund, and also several gifts of equipment amounting to probably $15,000.

The finances of the entire institution, in all its divisions, are in excellent condition; and operations have been conducted in an economical manner, as is indicated by the statement issued from the office of the director of the state budget. At the same time the charges made to students for college fees and living expenses were kept appreciably lower than those at any college for men or coeducational college in Virginia.

Among the important advances of the year is the revision of all of our engineering curricula on the basis of the investigation and recommendations recently made by the society for the promotion of engineering education. These revised curricula will go into effect with the beginning of next session. The agricultural experiment station has extended its activities considerably during the year by reason of the Purnell act funds, and has further extensions planned for the immediate future. The engineering experiment station, with practically no funds at its disposal, has conducted some promising projects, and has an interesting outlook for the future. Everything possible has been done to encourage research in all departments, and it is greatly regretted that there are not more adequate funds available.

To sum up in a general statement, it may be said that the year has been one of the best in the history of the college; and one has but to look around and enquire into the work in the various departments to be convinced that progress is being made in an encouraging degree.

Opening Of The 55th Session

The session began on Thursday, September 16, 1926. On the two days preceding the new students were registered, the purpose in extending the time for this to two days being in order that a preliminary physical examination might be given to determine whether or not the student might be enrolled in military. On the first day there were 1,096 students on the rolls, as compared with 1,048 the preceding year. Of the total number 994 were enrolled in military, and 32 were women.

The increase in enrolment came without effort on our part, but on the other hand we tried to restrict more than ever before the number of applicants accepted. We not only applied the standard entrance requirements strictly and consistently, but we required the recommendation of the preparatory school principal in all cases. Moreover, practically no special students were admitted, and no trainees of the veterans’ bureau are included as in former years. The increase in college fees authorized by the Board appears to have had no effect whatever upon the number of applicants.

Only two factors seem to materially limit the enrolment at this college, namely, the lack of dormitory accommodations and the depressed financial conditions in the rural sections of the state. The former is being removed to some extent by providing additional dormitory buildings, altho as has been repeatedly stated the main purpose of the additional buildings is to relieve the overcrowded dormitories rather than to provide for an appreciable increase in the enrolment. The latter limitation will no doubt continue until general economic conditions in the country districts improve. This year we had more urgent calls for financial assistance, in the way of loans and positions whereby students might earn something to help pay their expenses, than ever before, and unfortunately we have been able to meet only a small part of these needs. A considerable number of the students did menial work on the campus and in town to earn at least a part of their expenses.

Student Enrolment

Details of enrolment are published in the annual catalog. By way of summary, it may be stated that 1,224 students were enrolled during the session, being 19 more than for the next preceding year. Of these 189 were registered in the four-year agricultural curricula, being 1 less than the year before; 652 in the engineering curricula, being 29 more than the year before; 263 in business administration curricula, being 25 more than the year before; 89 in applied science curricula, being 14 more than the year before; and the remainder in unclassified and special courses.

It is important to note that in the enrolment up to this session we have counted the United States veterans’ bureau trainees, and in the session of 1925-26 we had 41 of these men who were not in residence at Blacksburg. Taking this fact into consideration it is seen that the increase in enrolment this session has been really 60 instead of 19 students. It is also gratifying to note that there are no longer any so-called “special students” registered at this college, and every student has satisfied the standard college entrance requirements.

Of the regular session enrolment 89.6% came from Virginia, whereas last session 91.2% were from Virginia. The number of students from out of the state has been slowly increasing each year for several years, but this year there has been a somewhat larger increase than usual. The 127 students from outside of Virginia (106 last session) came from 22 states and three foreign countries.

Educational Conference

Three years ago alumni of all the colleges of Virginia, private as well as state-supported, came together to consider the needs of higher education in our state. They organized the alumni council as an agency for common study and action. This council gathered facts and gave careful consideration to the various phases of the situation. It decided that it would be advisable to have a conference of leading citizens representing various sections of the state, and the Governor agreed to call such a conference to be held in Richmond on February 9 and 10. The purpose was to analyze the situation of the higher institutions, discuss the various phases of it, and counsel together as to the best ways and means of remedying it. A fair number of our alumni participated in this conference. The result of the conference was the formation of a permanent organization to work for the development of education in Virginia.

Other Special Activities

In February a committee from the state bankers’ association met here with a view to working out a plan by which the banking interests of Virginia might cooperate more closely with our agricultural extension division. This promising relationship is receiving our careful attention.

The annual rally of the boys of the Smith-Hughes agricultural high schools of the state brought 400 to the campus for three days in April.

During May the Virginia academy of science held its annual meeting at this college, and this was followed during the same month by the annual meeting of the Virginia engineering societies. These scientific gatherings meant much to the institution.

Visits To Alumni

The alumni secretary and myself have recently visited groups of our alumni in the cities of Lynchburg, Norfolk, Washington, Baltimore, Richmond, and Bluefield. The alumni secretary and Professor Johnson visited the alumni in Pittsburgh and Chicago. We are expecting to visit the groups at New York and Schenectady, and possibly Philadelphia, later in the year. Wherever we have been we have found a number of our alumni, representative men, interested in learning about the aims, work, and growth of the college, and eager to do something to aid in its development. Special interest has been shown in the development of the campus and the building plans on which we are now working.

If all who are interested in the institution would but familiarize themselves with the facts concerning it, what it has done and why, and what it hopes to do and how, and set forth these facts to others, a brilliant future would be assured. This institution has thruout its history apparently suffered more than any other institution in our state from misleading statements made and damaging attitudes assumed by individuals who by right ought to be, and frequently do pose as being, among the most loyal and enthusiastic supporters of the institution. If we can but get people to see facts, facts undistorted and unexaggerated, we can wipe away misunderstandings as to persons and things, and enlist as enthusiastic and helpful supporters representative men in every section of our state and country. It is to this end that we have been visiting our alumni in various centers, and the heartening response we have received encourages us to believe that the effort has been well worth while.

It is hoped that members of our Board will do everything they can, as opportunity presents itself, to foster this new, and we trust more intelligent, interest we are endeavoring to arouse in our alumni and indeed in our entire citizenship.

Revision Of Engineering Curricula

For several years the society for the promotion of engineering education has had a board of investigation making a study of the organization and administration of engineering curricula. A very significant report has been made and recently a conference of college officials connected with engineering education was held in Washington, to discuss the findings of this investigation and the recommendations resulting therefrom. Our institution was represented by three members of our engineering faculty and myself. Recently also the American association of engineers and the American institute of chemical engineers have been making a study of engineering education, and have made a number of recommendations concerning engineering curricula.

In the effort to bring our engineering work up to date and abreast of other institutions as shown by these studies, a committee of five members of our faculty was requested to work over carefully the recommendations of those organizations, compare our present curricula with them, and make recommendations for a revision of our curricula as far as considered wise. This committee has performed its task well and has submitted a set of curricula which appear to meet the recommendations of the engineering organizations to which reference has been made. It is purposed to put these revised curricula into effect during the coming session, and also to continue the work of the committee to include other phases of the administration of engineering curricula.

Rating Of The War Department

Official notice has been received from the United States war department that this college has again been placed on the list of “distinguished colleges.” The rating for this year is understood to be practically the same as that for the preceding year, which was unusually high.

The Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station

By an act of the General Assembly of 1926, the research functions of the crop pest commission were transferred to the station, effective July 1, 1926. This transfer brought to the station a well trained force of entomologists who were occupied during this year in investigations of a number of problems bearing upon methods for the control of injurious insects, such as the codling moth, the red-banded leaf-roller, the oriental fruit moth, the grain moth, the apple leaf hoppers, the woolly aphis of the apple, the soldier bug, and the rosy aphis. All of these insect pests are of large economic importance in Virginia.

New research projects were undertaken on the subjects which follow:

An economic study of the apple industry in Virginia; a study of prices in relation to farm production; the production, consumption, and disposition of milk and milk products in the Richmond territory; young peoples’ organizations as a factor in rural life; and community development trends.

Satisfactory progress was made on practically all projects. The following list of publications shows the investigations which were concluded during the year: The relation between dietary habits and health of children in rural sections of Virginia; Studies on the potato tuber moth during the winter of 1925-26; Red clover experiments; The effects of rotations, fertilizers, lime, and organic matter on the production of corn, wheat, and hay; New methods of bitter rot control; Cost of producing Virginia dark and bright tobacco and incomes from farming 1922-25; Rural organizations in relation to rural life in Virginia with special reference to organizational attitudes; Factors affecting returns from the dairy enterprise in the Shenandoah valley; Systems of beef cattle farming for southwestern Virginia; A study of germination, maturity, and yield in corn.

The Agricultural Extension Division

In our agricultural extension service this year the dairy, poultry, lamb improvement, and home improvement campaigns, started in 1926, have been continued with slight variations. Special attention has been given to soil improvement thruout the state, and an intensive food and feed, and diversification, campaign has been put on in the tobacco sections. The price paid farmers for Virginia dark fired tobacco having dropped from seventeen cents to seven and a half cents per pound, it appeared essential that new lines of farming be introduced into the affected sections. As this does not seem to be merely a temporary emergency, every effort is being made to introduce permanent livestock enterprises that will take the place of some of the tobacco. Emphasis is being put upon dairy, poultry, and hog production.

Effort has been and is being directed to increasing the enrolment in boys’ and girls’ clubs, and to improving the quality of the instruction given in these clubs. It is too early to measure the results, but unusual interest is being shown.

Cooperation In Rural Electrification

About a year ago Mr. John R. Horsley, director of the state water power and development commission, presented a plan for the development of rural electrification in Virginia, and since it appeared to be very promising, we entered heartily into cooperation with him for carrying out this plan. The agricultural extension division and the agricultural experiment station found a way for doing this in the regular activities for which they are respectively responsible, and satisfactory means for financing appeared assured.

Mr. J. A. Waller, Jr., assistant agricultural engineer of the agricultural extension division, who had recently conducted a successful experiment in rural electrification near Richmond, was placed on full-time rural electrification extension work. In order to do this it was necessary to employ a man for half-time service to take over the other phases of the work that Mr. Waller had been carrying, and the $1,500 required for this was the only extra expense occasioned-by the arrangement; for our agricultural extension division.

On the part of the agricultural experiment station, it was necessary to employ a man for half-time service for rural electrification investigations, at a cost of $1,150 a year, which was guaranteed from outside sources, so that the station was put to no extra expense.

In addition to the workers referred to, it was understood that the state water power and development commission would employ an electrical engineer and also a home economics specialist, for whose salaries this agency would provide.

The arrangement was made to begin January 1 and to continue to July 1, 1927. It was understood that continuance beyond the latter date would be contingent upon the results secured or promised by the six months’ trial. The General Assembly, at the special session during the spring, abolished the state water power and development commission and transferred its duties and responsibilities to the newly created state conservation and development commission. Arrangements were, however, made for this institution to continue its activities in this direction under a slightly revised plan.

Additional Field Laboratory In Entomology

The director of the agricultural experiment station recommended that an additional field laboratory be established for entomological work in the territory composed of Augusta and Albemarle and adjacent counties, in order that fruit-growers in that section- may be supplied with definite information on the codling moth and other troublesome orchard insects, a service similar to that rendered from the Winchester field laboratory. The plan was approved, and the work began in March at Staunton.

The Engineering Experiment Station

In June, 1927, a bulletin was issued giving an analysis of a gear-testing machine in general use, and some very important relations have been discovered. This study was preliminary to an extensive investigation proposed by the department of graphics of the efficiency, strength, and durability of spur gears, considerable progress on which has been made.

Erratic results from the use of a steam throttling calorimeter suggested an investigation of the flow of vapors by the departments of experimental engineering and physics. Preliminary tests with apparatus constructed by the department of physics indicate that important results may be expected.

The importance of pulverized limestone in agriculture and especially of local stone for building, led to a project involving the properties of limestone, including abrasiveness, porosity, and toughness and strength, and the porosity of masonry walls of different kinds of construction.

A project involving a study of compounds for boiler feed water is being actively prosecuted by Professors Ellis and Fish. The compound formerly used has been rejected as dangerous, and another compound whose action on suspended and precipitated matter is entirely different is being investigated.

Considerable progress has been made on the investigation of the effect of storage on hydrated lime although much time has been spent by Professor Fish in ascertaining the best method of making the chemical analyses. Results thus far show that in a period of several years carbonization penetrates approximately three inches in lime in loose piles; two inches in lime stored in ordinary (paper bag) containers, and much less in bags subjected to special surface treatment.

Some progress has been made on the project on the determination of stresses in machine frames. An indirect method had to be adopted for estimating the stresses in certain members.

Professor Fish devotes one-half of his time to station work, but the work on some of the projects proceeds very slowly because of the press of regular duties. It is highly desirable that one or two full time workers be added to the staff.

Corps of Cadets in the Staduim

   

Corps of Cadets in the Stadium At the dedication on October 23, 1926

In the Parade at Lee Highway Opening

Christiansburg, November 17, 1926

   

In the Parade at Lee Highway Opening Agriculture float.

   

In the Parade at Lee Highway Opening Engineering and Applied Science float.

 

The Engineering Extension Division

During the year the following bulletins were published by the engineering extension division: The construction of radio receiving sets, part III; Domestic fuel economy; Sewage disposal; Water supply, part I. Three thousand of each of these were distributed.

Advice on various engineering problems has been given to many persons throughout the state. We have been in correspondence with the Virginia laundry owners’ association in regard to cooperative service inspecting laundry machinery, and with the Virginia coal operators’ association in regard to cooperation in a short course for coal mine employes, but neither of these projects has as yet come to fulfillment. A short course was given to electric metermen. A joint meeting of the Virginia sections of the American society of civil engineers, American society of mechanical engineers, and American institute of electrical engineers was arranged for at Blacksburg.

Farm, Dairy Husbandry, And Animal Husbandry

A Board committee was appointed to inspect the college farm, the dairy husbandry department, and the animal husbandry department; but upon my request the entire membership of the Board engaged in this inspection.

At my request, Prof. T. B. Hutcheson, who has charge of the college farm, prepared a written report explaining the financial status of the. farm for the past year. Copies of this report were sent to the members of the Board. It seems obvious from this report that the farm has been operated in a satisfactory manner, considering the conditions surrounding farming in general during the past year.

The college livestock in all departments has been in comparatively good condition during the past year, in fact from all that I can learn its condition in general has been better than usual.

Recently we have been able to considerably improve conditions at the college dairy barn by the installation of toilet, shower, and locker rooms, by the concreting of the passage-way at the rear of the barn, and by the sealing of the east wing (not yet completed). Metal roofs of all of the barns will be painted soon; and some improvement of the area between the barns is planned for the near future.

It is probably too much to hope for that our plant and livestock will ever be up to such a standard that there may be found nothing whatever to criticize adversely; but it is confidently believed that there is much more to commend than to censure, and I feel that much credit is due to those in charge of these activities. They carry a heavy responsibility, they have worked faithfully and efficiently, and I believe they deserve the praise and encouragement of us all. When all of the circumstances they have had to face are considered, one cannot fail to appreciate their work.

Need For Additional Land

The attention of the Board and of the Governor’s budget advisers has been called several times to the need for additional land for farming and pasturage. The needs of the department of dairy husbandry are really acute, and we have been forced to rent temporarily this year a portion of the Smithfield property for pasturage. When the lease on the McBryde property expires, January 1, 1929, the college farm will be faced with a serious situation.

We have in view two possibilities for securing desirable land. The McBryde property of 133 acres is offered to us for $250 an acre, or with the house included for a total of $45,000. The Crumpacker farm immediately adjoining our property on the south and consisting of 94 acres may be purchased for $250 an acre with the timber, or for $230 an acre without the timber, the former appearing to be the better bargain. At least one of those properties should be acquired, and if only one it is our opinion that the Crumpacker farm is preferable.

We have now no available funds, but I think I should call the matter to the attention of the Board, inasmuch as we have no assurance as to how long the properties in question may be available. In my judgment items to cover both of these farm properties should be pressed for consideration in the budget of requests for the coming biennium.

Gifts To The College

Mrs. Neville Lawson, of Fredericksburg, has given $5,000 in cash to the college for the establishment of a perpetual scholarship, the income from which is to be used by a worthy student designated by the donor until directed otherwise. This scholarship is given in memory of her late husband, Mr. Ewing W. Lawson, who was a member of our extension division staff, and it will be called “the Ewing W. Lawson scholarship.”

A considerable amount of scientific equipment has been given to our department of physics recently, and some equipment has been donated to other departments, or sold to them at greatly reduced prices. In most cases the donors request that their names be not published. Mention of gifts to the world war memorial hall and its equipment is made elsewhere in this report.

Crop Pest Funds

In accordance with the law, the president of the state board of agriculture and the president of the college decided upon a division of the funds appropriated to the state board of crop pest commissioners for the year beginning March 1, 1927. This division was approved by the Governor. Of the total amount of the appropriation, $19,255, the agricultural experiment station was assigned $12,135.

The College Y. M. C. A.

The work of the college Y. M. C. A. is too little known and appreciated. Few people except those immediately in touch with its work know how extensive and how valuable it is to the student-body and the administration of the college. Its building is the center of the social and religious work on the campus, and to it we look for leadership in such phases of our work with students. Before the student comes to college he receives from the Y. M. C. A. a friendly letter of greeting and assurances of help, together with a useful handbook of information. When he arrives here he is guided thru the long process of registration and getting settled in his college home by picked students of the Y. M. C. A. From the beginning the new student is taught to look upon the building as a haven of rest where he may study or read in quiet, and where he may associate for social enjoyment or spiritual nourishment with young men of the right type. Every week the organization supplies a motion picture entertainment, and at times during the year it brings speakers of national reputation with stirring messages for the good of young men. Bible study groups, under the leadership of twenty students trained by the secretary of the association, worked well during the year and enrolled a majority of the students in barracks. Many religious books have been placed at the disposal of the students, and numerous pamphlets have been given to them. The spirit of christian helpfulness has extended beyond the campus, and laboratories for the practical application of the principles of good will have been found in the leadership of rural Sunday schools, the fostering of rural public schools, the relief of the poor in destitute districts near Blacksburg, and the development of community social recreation among rural people in several neighborhoods. The local Hi-Y club and the boy scouts of Blacksburg have been developed by our Y. M. C. A. students into splendidly serviceable organizations. During the year $235 was raised among students for the partial support of an alumnus who is now student secretary in China. Numerous social activities have been sponsored during the year.

It is impossible to give in this report details of the work of this useful organization. The annual report of its secretary is full of food for thought and encouragement. The increasingly large student-body has taxed the resources of the association to its limit. It recognizes fully its responsibility for the development of a pervasive christian atmosphere and a wholesome social recreation among our students, and it is struggling to meet adequately this responsibility. It is diligently seeking, thru various promising means, to enlist students in an intellectual subscription to the teachings of Jesus and to the sincere practise of these teachings in daily living. I place such a high value upon its work, which I consider indispensable in the development of spiritually-minded leaders among our students, that I feel it is my duty to thus briefly call it to the attention of the Board.

Religious Education

As has been stated, the college Y. M. C. A. has been doing a splendidly helpful work among our students, with opportunities for Bible study included in its various activities. It has been increasingly felt, however, that something more is needed in providing religious education for our students. Regardless of creed it must be generally recognized that the spiritual welfare of college students is of paramount importance. For this reason we have been considering for some time ways and means of providing more definitely and more adequately for religious instruction and guidance.

Recently we have been fortunate in securing the interest of all six of the protestant churches located in Blacksburg. A committee composed of the pastors of these churches together with a layman from each, selected by the church, and two additional representatives from the college faculty with the secretary of the Y. M. C. A. and its student president, has been working out plans whereby a department of religious education might be established in the college. It is proposed that there shall be certain courses in Bible and religious work offered by a professor ably qualified by preparation and experience, one who shall be acceptable to all of the churches concerned; and that the courses shall be strictly elective on the part of the students. It is, of course, understood that the work will be done in a wholly spiritually christian way but without doctrinal bias. It is proposed that the salary of the professor shall be paid by the six churches, on an apportionment based on the number of students registered, during the year just closed, as members in or preferring the respective churches. An effort will be made to begin this work at the opening of the coming session, the Board having signified its approval.

Community Sanitation

Unsanitary conditions existing on private property contiguous to the campus prompted me to request our health officer and our consulting physician, both of whom are members of the local board of health, to make an investigation of general health conditions in the town. This was done and we took up the question of remedying the situation, first with the mayor on several occasions, and later with the town council. We received more or less satisfactory promises but there appeared to be little actual improvement. We did, however, succeed in getting a special election on the question of excluding hogs from the town limits. With the aid of the state department of health this election was carried for exclusion, and this has produced much improvement.

There are, however, other improvements that should be effected, particularly the connection of premises to the sewer system. Numerous extensions and connections of the town sewers should be insisted upon for the protection of the college as well as of the community in general.

The Water Supply

The college spring is used to supply both the college property and the town with water, and up to last summer there has apparently been an adequate supply. The growth of the college and the town have, however, probably produced a condition meriting our serious attention. On July 23, 1926, as a result of information supplied me by Professor Begg and Mr. Miller, I decided that it was advisable to issue the following executive bulletin to all connected with the college:

“We have become somewhat anxious about the college water supply, and it seems necessary to take immediate steps to conserve the supply as much as we possibly can. From the best measurements we can get the spring is now supplying approximately 268,000 gallons a day, whereas our normal consumption is nearly 300,000 gallons a day, so that there appears to be a shortage of about 32,000 gallons a day. My information is that last night at one time the reservoir as well as the tank was actually empty, and it is easy to see how serious this would be in case of fire. We have no way of telling how long this condition will continue, but it will probably become worse until there are hard rains on the water-shed supplying our spring. I have requested the town authorities to take immediate steps to restrict the use of water in the town to strictly necessary purposes. It is necessary to impose the same restrictions upon all of those using water on the campus, or having under their direction employes or other persons who use water. It is necessary to prohibit the use of hose for sprinkling lawns or gardens, or for washing automobiles, and in fact to prohibit the general use of water except for essential household purposes. It is, of course, recognized that water must be used at the barns, the creamery, the laundry, and other places, in order that the work may be carried on properly, but in such cases those in charge will be held strictly to account for such use, and it is their duty to see that there is no waste whatever. The business manager has been instructed to see that this is carried out properly by everyone concerned, and it is earnestly requested that everyone cooperate with us to prevent a serious situation as regards water supply. We will keep in close touch with the situation, and just as soon as it seems safe to remove these restrictions, you will be notified accordingly.”

I communicated at once with the mayor of the town and he assured me that the town authorities would cooperate promptly, in the direction indicated in this bulletin.

The attention of the Board has been several times directed to the water situation, and I have from time to time discussed the matter with officials of the town. Under the contract which we have with the town for supplying it with water, we reserve the right to cut off this supply whenever it appears that there is not sufficient water for the needs of both the college and the town. I am convinced that the continued growth of the college and town makes it advisable to formally call the attention of the town authorities to the provisions of the water contract and the possibility that we may have to cease supplying the town with water in the not distant future.

Sewage Disposal Plant

The committee appointed by the Board met on September 24, and had present Mr. L. H. Williamson, of the firm of engineers employed on the sewage disposal plant project; Mr. Richard Messer, chief engineer of the state board of health; Dr. F. W. Eheart, representing the council of the town of Blacksburg; and several members of the college faculty committee on physical plant.

After full consideration of the recommendations of the engineers, it was decided to adopt their recommended project No. 1; and they were instructed to proceed with the preparation of plans and specifications and the advertising for bids for the construction. This being done, the Board at a meeting on January 20, sitting jointly with the officials of the town of Blacksburg, awarded contract for the work. Construction was started in March, but because of the very unfavorable weather progress has been slow. At this time probably one-fourth of the work is completed. The contract calls for completion on October 10 next, but allowances for bad weather would extend this period perhaps two months, and it seems doubtful whether it can be completed in less time than that.

It was thought advisable that the contract existing between the college and the town for supplying water and the joint use of the sewerage system, be revised to meet more clearly present conditions. Our attorney and the attorney of the town had several conferences with the college and town authorities, and a new contract was prepared. The special committee from our Board considered this contract and found it satisfactory, but the representative of the town desired that an addition be made to it to protect an easement right which he claims the town holds. There seemed to be no official record of such an easement right, and it appeared doubtful whether we should incorporate any such provision in the contract. The matter was submitted for the judgment of the Board and an agreement being reached, the contract was signed in its amended form.

Memorial Hall And Stadium

The most notable addition to the physical plant in the history of the institution was the completion and dedication during the year of the world war memorial hall and the stadium. The building was accepted by the alumni committee on July 30, and dedicated on October 23, 1926. While not yet equipped, except in a meagre and temporary way, this building has been used extensively during the college year. The stadium also has been used thruout the fall and spring for athletic events, although only about one-third of the seats have been constructed in permanent form. Dedication day was made the occasion of a home-coming for the alumni and during the football game in the afternoon practically all of the 3,750 permanent and 4,750 temporary seats were filled. The dedication exercises were interesting and impressive. A bulletin containing the addresses was published and widely distributed.

These two splendid additions to our physical plant represent together an outlay of approximately $450,000. The stadium was financed by the college athletic association, while the memorial hall is the result of the contributions of hundreds of students, alumni, and friends of the college. Some of our alumni contributed very large amounts for this purpose. During the latter part of the year we received two contributions of $2,000 each for equipment for the gymnasium, and within the closing days of the year a contribution of $25,000 from an alumnus, who had already contributed liberally, this to be used for equipment for the building.

This outstanding accomplishment of the year represents the inauguration of an altogether new era in alumni relationships at this college, which gives promise of important results in many directions in future.

Davidson Hall

On November 10, 1926, contract was let for the handsome stone building now nearly completed. It is being provided to house the departments of chemistry, physics, geology, and metallurgy; but it has been planned for its ultimate use for chemistry alone. With this in view a recommendation was made to the Board and approved, that the building be named in honor of Professor Robert J. Davidson, who was for twenty-three years professor of chemistry here and the first dean of the applied science division. He was respected and admired by his colleagues, he was held in affection by his students, and he was greatly appreciated by the farmers of Virginia to whom he was a valuable adviser. A number of our alumni who graduated in chemistry were consulted and they were unanimously in favor of this name for the building.

The general contractor is to be commended for the type of work, and particularly for the promptness with which it has been completed. The result is that we are able to equip a portion for use during the second term of the summer quarter and all of it for the opening of the fall quarter. The equipment of the building will be most complete.

New Dormitories

The first of the two additional dormitories to be provided under the Noell act has been completed. It appears to be a very satisfactory building. Its ninety-six bed-rooms will accommodate 192 students rooming two in a room. The standard of accommodations is far superior to any heretofore provided at this college.

For the second of the additional dormitories under the Noell act, the science hall is now being remodelled. It is hoped to have it ready about October 1 next. Our plans have been greatly facilitated by the excellent progress made by the contractor on Davidson hall, which has enabled us to transfer the equipment from the science hall about two months earlier than had been anticipated. The standard of work on this building will be as nearly like that of the other new dormitory as possible. Especial attention is being given to fire-proofing measures.

Other Physical Plant Improvements

During the summer of 1926 a large amount of work on the numerous buildings was completed. It will suffice to refer to only a few items.

A new roof was put on barrack No. 1; the exterior of the agricultural hall was painted; eighty new tables were made in our shops for the dining-hall; a considerable amount of furniture for class-rooms and dormitories was manufactured in our shops; trees and shrubs were planted, and some landscaping was done, on the campus; the basement of academic building No. 2 was completed for use for class-rooms.

During the session Patton engineering hall, the first story of which is completed, was used by our electrical engineering department; improvements were made at the college dairy barn; a storage room and shed were added to the dining-hall; a new boiler with its equipment was installed at the central heating-plant; and the central heat distribution system was greatly extended, to include the administration building, Patton engineering hall, the library, the world war memorial hall, and the new dormitory.

During the present summer (1927) the usual amount of general repairs to buildings and grounds will be made, and some equipment will be added to the various departments. Our college force has already made good progress on the remodelling of academic building No. 1, to provide an additional story by utilizing the attic, and this will certainly be completed and equipped for the graphics department prior to the opening of the fall quarter. A tile floor has been laid in the main dining-room of the college dining-hall. Work is now in progress on the improvement of the roadway along college avenue, which is to be hard-surfaced; and the electric distribution lines are being extended to provide for the sewage disposal plant section and to remove the wires from the undesirable and unsightly location near Davidson hall. Some very necessary replacements and extensions of sewer lines will be made within the next few weeks; and the water line in the vicinity of Davidson hall will be moved to a suitable location. A new heating system will be installed in at least one of the professors’ residences, and painting and general repairs will be made to several of them.

The Biennial Budget

The biennial budget of requests for 1928-30 must be formulated and submitted to the Governor not later than September 15, 1927. It is purposed to present this to the Board for approval at the August meeting.

My thought is that the budget of requests for the next biennium should be based very largely on the budget submitted for the current biennium, deducting certain items which were provided for in the appropriations granted. It is probable that our needs for operation during 1928-30 will be practically what we estimated them to be for 1926-28. As to our needed capital outlays the situation has not been materially changed. It is true that we have been able to borrow money to erect additional dormitories to accommodate approximately 400 students, but it has always been understood that the purpose was to relieve the overcrowded conditions now existing in the dormitories rather than to provide for an addition of 400 students to the present enrolment. Since the need for accommodations for additional students has, therefore, not been met, and since it is very desirable to make provision for an increase of from 400 to 500 students above the present enrolment, it seems that we should repeat our request for a dormitory appropriation. For other major building projects I should think the requests must necessarily be very similar to those included in the biennial budget of requests for 1926-28.

Financial Condition

The financial statements for the year ended February 28, 1927, show that the institution is in excellent financial condition, having been operated well within the available revenue. From table I it may be seen that we closed the year with a balance on hand of $123,064, with outstanding obligations of $113,811, leaving an unencumbered balance of $9,202. Table II gives the revenue produced during the past year, and the inventory of supplies on hand at the end of the year as compared with the preceding year. The inventory is unusually large and should be added to the cash balance on hand to get the amount to our credit at the beginning of the current year. Table III is the consolidated balance sheet as at February 28, 1927. This may be compared with that for the preceding year printed on page 43. The state appropriations for the current year are shown in table XI on page 33. The working budget for 1926-27 as formulated at the beginning of the year is to be found in tables XVII, XVIII, and XIX, on pages 44, 45, 46.

In the report for 1925-26 attention was called to the fact that by reason of the increased revenues from sources other than state appropriations during the 1924-26 biennium, it was possible to make many improvements beyond those provided for in the appropriations. The same is true as regards the year 1926-27. The improvements under way at the close of the year were covered by the amounts reserved in the gross balance on hand March 1, 1927. The progress which the college has made in adding to its permanent assets has been due in the past few years almost altogether to its ability, to increase its revenues from sources other than state appropriations. Unfortunately the possibilities in this direction appear to be approaching the end during the coming year -- but we must not permit our forward movement to stop, the needs and possibilities for service to our people are too great!

Table I -- Financial Statement for the Year March 1, 1926-February 28, 1927

(1)

Function
(2)
Total
Receipts
1926-27
(3)
Accounts
Receivable
Mch./1/27
(4)
Total
Revenue
1926-27
(5)
Disburse-
ments
1926-27
(6)
Reserved &
Accts. Pay.
Mch./1/27
(7)
Total
Expdt’rs.
1926-27
Administration$22,308  ……  $22,308  $51,005  $293  $51,298  
Agriculture19,589  ……  19,589  67,102  15  67,117  
S. H. Agric.  11,350  ……  11,350  13,887  ……  13,887  
Engineering7,874  $201  8,075  63,232  831  64,063  
S. H. Trades  575  ……  575  738  ……  738  
Mech. Arts.20,727  ……  20,727  30,836  144  30,980  
Printing31,482  300  31,782  33,818  262  34,080  
Academic-Science19,819  ……  19,819  96,251  1,533  97,784  
Military570  ……  570  9,748  ……  9,748  
Summer Quarter11,314  ……  11,314  16,661  ……  16,661  
Library5,659  ……  5,659  10,809  28  10,837  
Hospital12,167  ……  12,167  14,496  ……  14,496  
Dining Hall177,166  ……  177,166  162,185  ……  162,185  
Tailor Shop52,093  ……  52,093  42,180  4,350  46,530  
Laundry24,751  ……  24,751  17,027  ……  17,027  
Farm9,822  ……  9,822  9,792  979  10,771  
Dairy Husbandry14,530  ……  14,530  17,425  49  17,474  
Animal Husbandry3,386  ……  3,386  14,973  6,667  21,640  
Creamery32,677  ……  32,677  32,766  ……  32,766  
Heat & Power Plant44,848  ……  44,848  99,027  ……  99,027  
Electric Service38,387  40  38,427  20,060  1,198  21,258  
Pbg., Sew., Water10,583  ……  10,583  12,891  41,445  54,336  
Buildings & Grounds54,226  980  55,206  99,788  56,017  155,805  
Sinking Funds……  ……  ……  6,000  ……  6,000  
Student Loan Funds……  ……  ……  1,500  ……  1,500  
Veterans Bureau1,070  ……  1,070  787  ……  787  
Contingent9,293  ……  9,293  7,777  ……  7,777  
College Depts.$636,266  $1,521  $637,787  $952,761  $113,811  $1,066,572  
Balance 3/1/26123,602  ……  123,602  ……  ……  ……  
Federal Appr.53,992  ……  53,992  ……  17,997  17,997  
State Appros.261,965  ……  261,965  ……  ……  ……  
Adv. St. Ap. 1927-28……  16,475  16,475  ……  ……  ……  
Gross Bal. 3/1/27……  123,064  ……  123,064  ……  ……  
Free Bal. 3/1/27……  ……  ……  ……  9,252  9,252  
  $1,075,825  
(A)
$141,060  
(B)
$1,093,821  
(C)
$1,075,825  
(A)
$141,060  
(B)
$1,093,821  
(C)

  (A) Total Receipts (column 2) exceeded Total Disbursements (column 5) by $123,064, the Gross Balance on March 1, 1927.
  (B) Accounts Receivable and Balance on Hand March 1, 1927 (column 3) exceeded Accounts Payable and Reserves (column 6) by $9,252, the Free Balance on March 1, 1927. Included in the Reserves is $17,997 to protect Federal Appropriations paid in advance for the months of March-June, 1927.
  (C) The Total Disbursements, Accounts Payable and Reserves for 1926-27 (column 7) was less than the Total Revenue (column 4) by $9,252, which is the Unencumbered Balance on hand March 1, 1927.

Table II -- Business Statement for the Year March 1, 1926-February. 28, 1927

(1)

Function
(2)
Accounts
Receivable
Mch./1/26
(3)
Total
Receipts
1926-27
(4)
Accounts
Receivable
Mch./1/27
(5)
Net. Rev.
Produced
1926-27
(6)
Supplies
Inventory
Mch./1/26
(7)
Supplies
Inventory
Mch./1/27
Administration……  $22,308  ……  $22,308  ……  ……  
Agriculture……  19,589  ……  19,589  $180  $459  
S. H. Agric.……  11,350  ……  11,350  ……  ……  
Engineering……  7,874  $201  8,075  ……  ……  
S. H. Trades……  575  ……  575  ……  ……  
Mech. Arts$122  20,727  ……  20,605  7,636  8,257  
Printing17  31,482  300  31,765  2,351  2,754  
Academic-Science……  19,819  ……  19,819  ……  ……  
Military……  570  ……  570  ……  ……  
Summer Quarter……  11,314  ……  11,314  ……  ……  
Library……  5,659  ……  5,659  ……  ……  
Hospital……  12,167  ……  12,167  ……  ……  
Dining Hall……  177,166  ……  177,166  6,981  8,503  
Tailor Shop……  52,093  ……  52,093  13,363  15,634  
Laundry……  24,751  ……  24,751  ……  542  
Farm……  9,822  ……  9,822  2,210  2,465  
Dairy Husbandry……  14,530  ……  14,530  934  514  
Animal Husbandry……  3,386  ……  3,386  375  723  
Creamery330  32,677  ……  32,347  ……  350  
Heat & Pow. Pit.……  44,848  ……  44,848  1,968  3,758  
Electric Service7  38,387  40  38,420  2,507  2,547  
Plbg., Sew., Wat.1,476  10,583  ……  9,107  595  250  
Bldg. & Grds.……  54,226  980  55,206  2,396  4,414  
U. S. Vet. Bureau596  1,070  ……  474  ……  ……  
Contingent……  9,293  ……  9,293  ……  ……  
Total$2,548  $636,266  $1,521  $635,239  $41,496  $51,170  

  The Net Revenue Produced in 1926-27 (column 5) is the Total Receipts (column 3) less the Accounts Receivable at the beginning of the year (column 2) plus the Accounts Receivable at the end of the year (column 4).
  The Inventory (columns 6 and 7) includes only supplies on hand for early consumption and nothing of a permanent nature, thus being essentially the same as cash on hand for operation, and it might be properly included in the Gro88 Balance in Table 1.

Table III -- Consolidated Balance Sheet

As at February 28, 1927

(Exclusive of Agricultural Experiment Stations and Agricultural Extension Division)

ASSETS
I. Current:
 Cash in hands of Treasurer $123,064
 Rotary Funds and Imprest Cash:
  Petty Cash, College Cashier$500
  Petty Cash, Advanced Registry$500
  Student Loans23,088
  Workmen's Compensation18,268
  42,356
 Accounts Receivable:
  General Departmental1,521
  State Appropriation 1927-28 Advanced16,475 
  17,996
 Supplies Inventory 51,170
     $234,586
II. Endowment:
 From Land Grant Act of Congress, 1862  344,312
III. Funded Debt:
 Buildings and Equipment Sinking Funds  47,706
IV. Physical Plant:
 Land (722 acres at $350 average) 252,700
 Buildings2,315,000
  Less Depreciation Reserve, 10%231,500  
  2,083,500
 Central Heat Distribution System105,000
  Less Depreciation Reserve, 3%3,150 
  101,850
 
 Electric Service Distribution System26,000
  Less Depreciation Reserve, 10%2,600 
  23,400
 
 Water Supply System19,000
  Less Depreciation Reserve, 10%1,900 
  17,100
 
 Sewerage System14,000
  Less Depreciation Reserve, 25%3,500 
  10,500
 
 Departmental Equipment and Library700,000
  Less Depreciation Reserve, 5%35,000 
  665,000
 
 Livestock 51,800 
  3,205,850
 
   $3,832,454
    
LIABILITIES
I. Current:
 Working Balance $9,252
 Reserve for Rotary Funds and Imprest Cash 42,356
 Reserve for Accounts Payable, etc. 113,811
 Reserve for Federal Income Advanced 17,997
 Reserve for Supplies 51,170 
  $234,586
 
II. Endowment:
 Reserve for Land Grant Fund  344,312
III. Funded Debt:
 Buildings and Equipment Bonds, 1900  100,000
IV. Physical Plant:
 Debt on Black Farm 17,176
 Balance Owing on Professors’ Houses 11,894
 Borrowed under the Noell Act 85,000
 Equity of Town in Sewage Disposal Plant2,000
 Unencumbered Investment in Physical Plant 3,037,486
   3,153,556
   $3,832,454
    

The Working Budget For 1927-28

The working budget for the year which began March 1, 1927, as approved by the Board, is presented in tables IV, V, and VI. The estimated revenue was put at $5,739 less than the actual receipts for the preceding year, despite the increased charges to be made for tuition and other fees; and an unallocated balance of $6,839, in addition to a reserve of $17,997 for federal funds advanced, was left to protect against shortage of revenue or excess of expenditures.

Table IV -- Summary of Budget for the Year March 1, 1927-February 29, 1928

(1)

Function
(2)
Accounts
Receivable
Mch./1/27
(3)
Estimated
Receipts
1927-28
(4)
Total
Available
1927-28
(5)
Reserved
Accts. Pay.
Mch./1/27
(6)
New Allo-
cations
1927-28
(7)
Total Estd
Exp’d’tures
1927-28
Administration……  $22,300  $22,300  $293  $55,665  $55,958  
Agriculture……  19,700  19,700  15  68,250  68,265  
S. H. Agric.……  9,000  9,000  ……  14,200  14,200  
Engineering$201  7,900  8,101  831  82,200  83,031  
Mech. Arts……  21,000  21,000  144  32,825  32,969  
Printing300  31,500  31,800  262  35,980  36,242  
Academic-Science……  21,600  21,600  1,533  97,258  95,725  
Military……  600  600  ……  10,050  10,050  
Summer Quarter……  11,000  11,000  ……  16,700  16,700  
Library……  6,600  6,600  28  11,600  11,628  
Hospital……  12,100  12,100  ……  14,500  14,500  
Dining Hall……  177,000  177,000  ……  165,300  165,300  
Tailor Shop……  51,000  51,000  4,350  42,275  46,625  
Laundry……  24,700  24,700……  17,600  17,600  
Farm……  10,000  10,000  979  11,100  12,079  
Dairy Husbandry……  14,500  14,500  49  20,500  20,549  
Animal Husbandry……  3,400  3,400  6,667  12,425  19,092  
Creamery……  33,500  33,500  ……  33,775  33,775  
Heat & Pow. Plt.……  40,500  40,500……  46,635  46,635  
Electric Service40  37,600  37,640  1,198  21,190  22,388  
Plbg., Sew., Wat.……  6,000  6,000  41,445  15,650  57,095  
Bldgs. & Grounds980  60,500  61,480  56,017  156,600  212,617  
Sinking Funds……  ……  ……  ……  6,000  6,000  
Student Loans……  ……  ……  ……  1,500  1,500  
Contingent……  7,500  7,500  ……  7,500  7,500  
College Depts$1,521  $629,500  $631,021  $113,811  $995,745  $1,109,556  
Bal. Mch./1/27……  ……  123,064  ……  ……  ……  
Federal Appro.……  ……  53,992  17,997  ……  17,997  
State. Appro.……  ……  309,840  ……  ……  ……  
St. Ap. Used ’26-716,475  ……  16,475  ……  ……  ……  
Bal. Unallocated……  ……  ……  ……  ……  6,839  
      $1,134,392
(D)
……  ……  $1,134,392
(D)

  The Receipts (column 3) are estimated on the basis of the Net Revenue Produced in 1926-27. shown in column 5 of Table II. They are estimated $5,739 less to give a margin of safety.
  Column 4 is the sum of columns 2 and 3.
  Column 5 includes accounts of 1926-27 remaining unpaid, contracts, orders and requisitions filed but unfilled, and other obligations chargeable against the Gross Balance of $123,064 on March 1, 1927.
  >Column 6 shows the totals of the various functions in the new budget, the distribution by objects of expenditure being given in Table V.
  Column 7 is the sum of columns 5 and 6. The amounts set out for expenditure total less than the estimated revenue by $24,836. In addition to the reserve to cover Federal appropriation paid in advance, there is an ample unallocated margin of $6,839, which protects against loss in revenue and unexpected increase in expenditure.

Table V -- New Allocations for the Year March 1, 1927-February 29, 1928

(1)

Function
(2)
-A-
Personal
Service
 
(3)
-B-
Cont’l
Service
 
(4)
-C-
Supplies
-D-
Materials
(5)
-E-
Equip-
ment
 
(6)
-F-
Structs.
-G-
Fxd. Chgs
(7)
-I-
Interest
-J-
Imp. Cash
(8)

Total
Alloca-
tions
Administration$26,000  $14,000  $3,300  $2,100  $8,800  $1,465  $55,665  
Agriculture52,600  2,800  8,325  4,000  125  ……  ……  
      D   400  ……  ……  ……  68,250  
S. H. Agric.11,300  1,625  750  525  ……  ……  14,200  
Engineering56,000  12,000  875  9,500  F  3,650  ……  ……  
          175  ……  82,200  
Mech. Arts20,500  4,650  2,000  3,000  175  ……  ……  
      D  2,500  ……  ……  ……  32,825  
Printing14,000  3,000  950  8,605  ……  ……  ……  
      D  9,425  ……  ……  ……  35,980  
Academic-Sci.89,000  825  2,900  2,700  300  ……  95,725  
Military7,550  1,025  1,200  250  25……  10,050  
Summer Quarter10,500  600  5,300  ……  300  ……  16,700  
Library6,600  1,350  100  3,525  25  ……  11,600  
Hospital10,000  2,300  1,500  650  50  ……  14,500  
Dining Hall31,500  9,500  115,000  6,550  2,750  ……  165,300  
Tailor Shop12,000  725  28,200  400  950  ……  42,275  
Laundry11,000  3,500  2,700  100  300  ……  17,600  
Farm4,750  2,600  1,800  850  1,000  ……  ……  
      D   100  ……  ……  ……  11,100  
Dairy Husb.5,500  4,500  9,000  1,150  250  ……  ……  
      D   100  ……  ……  ……  20,500  
Anim. Husb.4,000  1,300  5,400  1,000  25  600  ……  
      D   100  ……  ……  ……  12,425  
Creamery3,400  2,025  25,400  2,950  ……  ……  33,775  
Htg. & Pow. Plt.10,500  3,500  30,900  1,135  600  ……  46,635  
Elec. Service4,000  10,500  3,100  3,490  100  ……  21,190  
Plbg, Sew., Wat.4,000  2,000  1,100  6,850  ……  ……  ……  
      D  1,700  ……  ……  ……  15,650  
Bldgs. & Grds.26,000  13,300  2,800  14,500  F  83,500  9,000  ……  
      D  7,300  ……  200  ……  156,600  
Sinking Fund  ……  ……  ……  ……  5,000  ……  
            J  1,000  6,000  
Student Loans……  ……  ……  ……  ……  J  1,500  1,500  
Contg. Fund  ……  4,500  ……  ……  3,000  ……  7,500  
  $420,700
 
$102,125
 
C $252,600
D  21,625
$73,830
 
F $87,150  
G  19,150
I $16,065  
J  2,500
……  
$995,745  

Where reference letters do not appear, the other classification included in the column applies.
  A-Salaries; B-Repairs, Light, Heat, Power, Travel, Transportation, Communication, Printing, etc.; C-Food, Fuel, Laboratory, Office, and Other Supplies; D-Building, Highway, and Other Materials; E-Office, Laboratory, and Other Equipment, Livestock, Vehicles, etc.; F-Buildings and Other Structures and Land; G--Rent, Insurance, Refunds; I-Interest; J-Rotary Funds.

Table VI -- Allocations to Instructional Departments for the Year 1927-28

(1)

Divisions and
Departments
(2)
Resvd. for
Outst’ding
Accounts
(3)
Approp’n
for Salaries
and Wages
(4)
Approp’n
for B-C-D
Operation
(5)
Appro’n
for Equip-
ment
(6)
Total
for
Expend.
(7)
Estimated
Dep’t’m’al
Credits
Agricultural Div.:      
    General (Dean)……  ……  $375  $50  $425  ……  
    Repairs……  ……  800  ……  800  ……  
    Fuel & Elec.……  ……  1,000……  1,000  ……  
Agric. Chern……  ……  25  100  125  ……  
Agric. Economics……  ……  25  100  125  ……  
Agric. Eng’g.……  ……  700  450  1,150  ……  
Agronomy……  ……  350  300  650  ……  
Botany & P. P.……  ……  350  300  650  $50  
Dairy Husb.……  ……  400  50  450  ……  
Home Econs.$15  ……  700  1,000  1,715  ……  
    H. E. Dorm’y……  $700  2,500  600  3,800  3,200  
Horticulture……  ……  100  50  150  ……  
Poultry Husb……  2,700  3,800  600  7,100  6,500  
Zoology & A. P.……  2,250  400  400  3,050  2,650  
Total Agric.$15  $5,650  $11,525  $4,000  $21,190  $12,400  
Eng’g Division:      
    General (Dean)……  ……  200  50  250  ……  
    Remodelling……  ……  10,000  ……  10,000  ……  
Civil Eng’g……  ……  250  300  550  ……  
Elec. Eng’g.1  ……  500  2,000  2,501  ……  
Exper’l Eng’g.40  ……  300  1,400  1,740  ……  
Eng’g Exp. Sta.381  150  650  1,000  2,181  ……  
Eng’g Ext. Div.……  50  300  0  350  ……  
Graphics……  500  400  4,500  5,400  550  
Metallurgy8  ……  75  100  183  ……  
Mining Eng’g.……  ……  50  50  100  ……  
Power Eng’g.401  ……  150  100  651  50  
Total Eng’g.$831  $700  $12,875  $9,500  $23,906  $600  
Academ.-Sci. Div.:      
    General (Dean)……  ……  175  100  275  ……  
    Remodelling1,010  ……  ……  ……  1,010  ……  
    Fuel & Elec.……  ……  600  ……  600  ……  
Bus. Adm., Ec., His.120  ……  75  500  695  ……  
Chemistry26  ……  2,000  500  2,526  900  
English……  ……  100  100  200  ……  
Foreign Langs.……  ……  25  50  75  ……  
Geology……  ……  100  250  350  ……  
Mathematics……  ……  50  100  150  ……  
Physical Educa……  ……  150  100  250  ……  
Physics377  ……  450  1,000  1,827  200  
Total Acad.-Sci.$1,533  ……  $3,725  $2,700  $7,958  $1,100  

Divisional totals in column 2 are the corresponding divisional amounts in column 5 of Table IV.
  Divisional totals in column 3 are included in the amounts for corresponding divisions in column 2 of Table V; those of column 4 are the sums of the amounts in columns 3 and 4 of Table V; and those of column 5 are the corresponding amounts of column 5 of Table V.
  Column 6 is the sum of columns 2, 3, 4, and 5.
  Estimated Departmental Credits in column 7 are included in the amounts for corresponding division in column 3 of Table IV.

Centralized Financial Management

As I see it, the chief effect of the state governmental reforms now going into operation, so far as the educational institutions are concerned, will come out of the centralization of the financial management of the state’s business. The new financial system will go into full force on March 1, 1928. The result for this institution cannot be determined for at least a year from now. Many have misgivings as to the outcome. For myself, I may state that I believe heartily in centralization in general. To my mind the budget system adopted in 1918 did more for the educational institutions, as well as other agencies of Virginia, than any one thing had ever done for them since their establishment. The budget system is an important stabilizing factor in state government. Just as all of our institutions have greatly benefitted from it, so should they all profit from the proposed centralization of financial control, provided this is carefully, impartially, and intelligently administered. It should not be overlooked that there are possible dangers in the application of any hard and fast system to many agencies differing widely in type. Such a system must be viewed as means to an end and not as an end in itself. Principles of consolidation and centralization must be adapted to the different, types of agencies affected, and particularly to the state’s colleges, because they are quite different in organization and purpose from other institutions and agencies of the government. This is because their peculiar function is to be educational leaders. The same is true of extension service and of research, which are distinctly different from the usual administrative and regulatory functions of other agencies of government.

It is, unquestionably true that sound general principles of business should be followed for all educational institutions, but the difference lies in their application. Unless there be special adaptation it is probable that the very end sought by the centralization plan -- economy and efficiency -- will be defeated. It would be most unfortunate if the system should be so operated as to restrict the breadth of service, the exercise of initiative, the practise of thrift and self-help, the independent action as intellectual leaders, of these institutions, perhaps by the entrance of unwholesome political influence or of superfluous administrative surveillance. Unquestionably some phases of the management of our educational institutions may be standardized and handled uniformly with other agencies of the government, but there are individual differences between these institutions and other agencies which are organically important, and allowance must be made for these through some flexibility of central administration. The desideratum is to secure a reasonable degree of uniformity, systematic attention to business, and integrity and efficiency in administration, without straining and deadening the spirit of the work and the workers with useless inhibitions.

There are much more important considerations entering into the formulation of educational policies and the practical working out of these policies than dollars and cents, however indispensable money is. The blessed work of education has to do with human material, with mental, moral, and spiritual factors, which are beyond price and cannot be accurately measured in terms of dollars and cents. It is illogical and wasteful to put last what should come first. The first thing to decide is what the state needs to have done -- then, but not until then, what it will cost to do this thing. The objective should determine the amount provided, not the amount provided the objective. A great commonwealth does not result from a mere consideration of monetary factors. Money is an absolutely necessary means to the end, but the end should not be determined by the money. Intellectual leadership means more than playing on the keys of an adding-machine and juggling figures on a ledger.

The ultimate objective of all of our efforts is an intelligent, patriotic, productive citizenship, living in peace and happiness, throughout the commonwealth. Like heaven, this may not be gained at a single bound. There must, therefore, especially because of financial limitations, be proximate as well as ultimate objectives, and these proximate objectives may be influenced by monetary considerations, but our ultimate objective should never be determined by so material a factor as monetary cost. Whatever we do, we must keep the ultimate objective in view.

I must not be understood as opposing centralized business management, so far as that may be established without injury to the institutions, but my purpose is merely to caution against the application of the proposed system in such a manner as to defeat the very purpose of it. A policy may be good business but poor statesmanship. Let us strive to get good statesmanship with good business, through intelligent and sympathetic application of good business principles. I am heartily in favor of the general plan, and I believe that it can be administered in such a way as to avoid the evils which I have indicated.

   

Davidson Hall of Chemistry Davidson Hall of Chemistry To be occupied in September, 1927

   

New Dormitory (No. 6) New Dormitory (No. 6) This contains 96 bed-rooms, for occupancy in September, 1927

   

New Dormitory (No. 7) New Dormitory (No. 7) -- This contains 104 bedrooms, for occupancy in November, 1927

The Educational Survey

As a part of the state governmental reform program provision has been made for an educational survey, to cover not only the lower schools but also the higher institutions. This is much to be desired by the institutions themselves, if the survey be properly conducted. Such a, survey should be based, altogether on fact-finding -- the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. The conclusions should be arrived at without bias, and from a broader perspective than that of local or personal considerations. All recommendations should be justified fully and clearly by the facts.

It is usually assumed that such a survey would promote economy, but it might not promote economy in the sense of calling for less money from the state. In all probability it will show that considerably more money should be expended. It will, however, almost certainly promote economy by pointing out ways in which the money may be used more efficiently in meeting the needs of the state. It is well not to be misled and expect too much from such a survey.

We frequently hear about duplication in the work of the state educational institutions, and this is in some minds the chief reason for a survey. Let us hope that useless and wasteful duplication if it exists will be found and eliminated, but let us remember that not all duplication is wasteful. Where the same type of work is given in two or more institutions, and these departments are crowded with students, so that consolidation would be impossible without considerable expense, it may not be justly claimed that waste results. On the other hand, where a department at one institution is maintained for a very few students, and another institution has a similar department with a larger number but is able to care for more than it has without increasing the cost of instruction, there is reason for consolidation.

Again, we frequently hear references to the large number of boards of control for our institutions and the great cost involved. As a matter of fact, if the budget figures be reliable, the cost of all of the seven boards for the ten institutions of higher education is only about $5,000 a year, an average of $500 for each institution. The members of these boards render valuable service without compensation. They give freely of their time and energy to guide, assist, encourage, and protect these institutions, and to establish helpful relationships for them throughout the state. The Governor is afforded an opportunity to honor a group of worthy citizens without it costing the state any appreciable amount, and higher education is given a fine group of men and women to promote it, while at the same time the interests of the public are guarded. Moreover, to place all of these institutions under one board would necessitate a paid membership, or else the time and attention given would not be worth a great deal. It would cost a large amount to secure paid members of the high type now found on our boards.

It is true that Virginia has an unusual situation in the number of institutions maintained by the state for higher education. If we were starting afresh, few of us would advocate so great a decentralization of our educational effort. However, as this situation has existed for many years, and as the number of supporters of the several institutions has increased in such proportions as to carry formidable influence in public affairs, these institutions have become firmly entrenched, each in its own sphere. The autonomy of each educational dominion is jealously guarded by her loyal sons and daughters. It is not surprising that there have been wars and rumors of wars from time to time over territorial boundaries.

But this is an anachronism. Virginia is living in the glorious sunlight of a new day. Sectionalism, once the curse of our state, has broken down under the barrage of progress. The grand old commonwealth is moving forward as a unit. What Virginia has needed for lo these many years has been a state consciousness instead of sectional consciousness. What Virginia’s educational system needs today, more than money or any other thing, is the development of a state consciousness instead of an institutional consciousness.

It is a fine thing to be loyal to one’s alma mater, and none of our colleges can get far without this loyalty; but there are higher loyalties than this, and one of these is to be loyal to the best interests of the state, the education of its people, and the promotion of efficiency and economy in its administration. This is a loyalty we owe regardless of the cost to any particular unit of the system. The good of the whole must take precedence over the good of any individual part.

If, therefore, it can be clearly shown -- and nothing less than being clearly shown can be considered -- that boards of control should be consolidated in the interest of economy and efficiency, no institution should object. If it can be fully demonstrated and nothing less than demonstration beyond reasonable doubt should be considered -- that institutions themselves, in their entirety or in some part, should be consolidated, or eliminated, then loyalty to the best interests of the state demands that this be done.

If there be no important change in the present situation by consolidation or elimination, still one thing should be insisted upon, and that is that these institutions cooperate in the fullest degree with one another, that an entente cordiale be maintained in spirit as well as in letter. This is for their own individual good as well as for the good of the state. There must be unity of heart and unity of purpose, but unity is a plant which will not grow in earth saturated with suspicion, institutional envy, or personal jealousy. The will to cooperate must be firmly established in the hearts of those who direct the affairs of these institutions.

Waste In Education

Much is being said about waste in education, particularly in that of college grade; and some are claiming that the impending educational survey will eliminate this waste. It mayor it may not do much in this direction. There are many misconceptions of what educational waste is and what its source is.

The real waste in our higher education does not arise from poor business management, nor from duplication of function, nor from multiplicity of boards. It may not be eliminated through consolidation nor through centralized financial control. The real waste in higher education comes out of the attempt to give everybody who thinks he ought to have it, or whose parents think he ought to have it, a college education -- the unprepared, the immature, the incapable, the careless, the irresponsible, the trifling, along with those who are really college material. Colleges have more and more come to be looked upon as possessing a magician’s wand, or as practicing an alchemy for the transmutation of base metals of personality into the pure gold of culture. College education can do a great deal, and many marvellous transformations may be cited, but we must not make the mistake of looking upon it as a panacea for all of the ills of heredity or of early environment.

If the validity of this be granted, there is yet great difficulty in finding a remedy that will be acceptable and practicable. We hear about making entrance requirements more restrictive. Most of our state colleges are requiring graduation from an accredited high school. Some institutions call for testimonials from persons who know about the applicant. There has been talk of admitting only graduates who have made certain quality grades in high school, of giving all applicants intelligence tests, or examinations of a comprehensive type, at least in certain subjects. It seems to me that better than all of these is educational and vocational guidance in the high school period. Not every boy and girl who manages to graduate from high school should go to college, and many who do go register in the wrong course. High school teachers and principals should be frank with their pupils as to this. Colleges should refuse to take applicants not recommended for college entrance by their high school principals. Such measures as I have indicated are capable of eliminating a great deal of the waste of the early years in college. It must be admitted, however, that there appears to be no reliable, certainly no infallible, test for determining whether or not an individual will profit from college attendance. While we can undoubtedly cull out the more pronounced cases of unfitness, it must be kept in mind that there is danger of barring out some one who might perchance make a brilliant college record.

After all, it may be wise to give every boy and girl who appears by high school record to be prepared for college entrance, a chance to prove himself; and then if he does not make good put him out. Perhaps it is fairer to weed out after trial than to bar out before giving an opportunity. We must recognize the fact that there is a point of diminishing returns also in education, and that it is a waste to attempt to go beyond that point with any individual. At Virginia Polytechnic Institute we permit students entitled to state scholarships to attend free of charge for tuition for two years, and if their records during these two years are not up to the required standard they must leave, or if they are permitted to remain in attendance they must pay tuition. I believe that we should go further than this in all of our colleges, I think we should make it easy for a capable and faithful student to remain in college, and difficult for an indolent and unfit student to remain.

It seems to me that a good plan would be to require all students to pay for their tuition on a sliding scale, in inverse proportion to the records they make. I know of no valid reason why the state should put a premium on unfitness, incapacity, misconduct, or idleness, by granting such students free tuition as long as they may wish to attend college. Indeed, there seems to be no real reason why even mediocre or passably fair students should be so rewarded; but I do think there is every reason why the state should enable a promising young man or young woman to attend college free of tuition and at the lowest possible cost. This is the true spirit of democracy. Education at public expense should recognize no class or caste save an aristocracy of brains, but for these chosen ones it is impossible to do too much.

A Vision For A Greater V. P. I.

The first five years of the present administration, 1919-1924, formed a period of intensive repairing, remodelling, and replacing of portions of the physical plant. Making urgently needed improvements to badly run-down buildings, outworn heating and lighting systems, inadequate equipment, and generally neglected campus, called for an expenditure of funds sufficient to erect several handsome buildings, but fortunately it was considered wise to first rescue the old plant. During these five years, however, visions of a greater college gradually evolved into certain definite ideas. After much thought and consultation with many people, and with the aid of an able faculty committee, two important decisions were reached, namely, (1) to recondition the old brick plant and preserve its integrity as such, and (2) to develop a new plant of stone structures to the west of the old brick plant, surrounding a large open field. Rough preliminary sketches were prepared, and the Board of Visitors gave its approval to the tentative plan.

The next step being to secure professional guidance and assistance in working out the plan, the architects who had designed the handsome McBryde building were consulted. Later, one of the best-known landscape designers in America was employed to assist. The result is the large picture now in the president’s office. A photograph of this is reproduced in the frontispiece of this report.

The plan contemplates a central recreation and drill field, approximately three times the area of the old athletic field, which forms the eastern end. This expanse is to be left open forever, and around it are to be grouped the buildings of the new plant. These structures are being designed in the modified Tudor type of architecture, with walls of limestone quarried on the campus. With the exception of the buildings already in place at the time the plan was adopted, all members of this group will be strictly fireproof.

The eastern end of this oval of buildings is formed by the library and the administration building, to which may be appropriately added the McBryde building of mechanic arts and the young men’s christian association hall, both of which are of stone. This group separates the old brick plant from the new stone plant. The western end of the oval will be marked on the south by the agricultural group, consisting of the agricultural hall, erected twenty years ago, and the agricultural extension division building, erected in 1924, together with another connected building to be provided in future principally for the occupancy of the agricultural experiment station. At the north of the western end, opposite the agricultural group, will be three buildings of the science group, the middle and largest of which -- Davidson hall of chemistry -- is now nearly completed.

The southern side of the oval has as its central and outstanding unit the magnificent world war memorial hall, completed this year. This includes the gymnasium and various facilities for physical training and for alumni and student activities. In its rear will be eventually a swimming-pool, and at the back of that will be tennis courts. Still further to the rear, on the axis of the building, is the splendidly designed and constructed Miles stadium, used for the first time last fall and not yet fully completed. At both sides of the memorial hall one or more stone dormitories will be erected, architecturally in harmony with the other units of the new plant.

The northern side of the oval will have as its central feature a spacious auditorium, to be erected on the axis of the memorial hall and stadium, and facing the former. This structure may also include a number of administrative offices and other facilities. On each side of it will be one or perhaps two buildings for teaching purposes. One of these will almost certainly be planned to accommodate the work in business administration, while one or more will probably be used for language, mathematics, and other academic departments. Patton engineering hall, the first of this group to be erected, was begun in 1925.

Since it was determined to maintain the old brick plant, it seemed advisable to fill in the vacant northwest corner of the barracks quadrangle with a dormitory. Moreover, it appeared desirable to convert into a dormitory the present science hall, which is inconveniently located for teaching purposes. The recently completed four-story brick dormitory and the remodelled science hall will give seven dormitories in the old quadrangle, and complete the brick plant. Since the dining-hall, infirmary, and laundry are near at hand, the logical arrangement of living accommodations for students is readily seen. Plans are now being made for an enlarged and improved central heating and power plant, on the present site.

A study of the development plan will show the attempt to group all of the various buildings in accordance with function, with a view to convenience of location, and to promote efficiency of use. Buildings for engineering departments are on the northern side, to the east -- Patton hall, the McBryde building, the heating and power plant, and certain engineering laboratories. Those for agricultural departments are located in the southwestern section -- agricultural hall, barns, etc. The academic and science departments are located to the north and west, between the engineering and agricultural groups, since they are necessary for both of the latter. For obvious reasons of convenience, the auditorium is to be built near the center of the entire plant. The general facilities of the library and the Y. M. C. A. are placed near the dormitories. The physical education group at the south represents a logical, convenient, complete plant -- the memorial hall with indoor facilities in the center, the great open field for recreation and drill in front, and the stadium for competitive sports in rear. The proposed dormitories, flanking this physical education plant, and some day no doubt extending to the east in the direction of the library and old barracks quadrangle, are located logically in close proximity to the general utilities.

It is necessary to have the comprehensive plan for development in mind in forming an opinion as to the location of any particular building. It must be remembered that each building is a unit in a large plant, and not merely an isolated building to be placed on some site which appeals for the moment to the eye as being a good location. When building for the future there is but one wise procedure, and that is to have a carefully thought out plan from the beginning, and to fit every unit into this general lay-out.

Naturally, the problem of financing a development program of this magnitude is a most perplexing one, the solution of which can come only gradually. Where there is no vision there can be no progress, but also where there is no faith and hope there can be no realization of vision in tangible form.

It must, of course, be recognized that providing an adequate physical plant is meeting but one group of needs for a greater college, and while this is important there is something more essential to the making of a great institution. The service rendered has been greatly increased, the enrolment of students is approximately three times what it was eight years ago, the teaching faculty, the research staff, and the extension staff have all been increased considerably. More important than the quantitative side, however, is the qualitative. Higher standards of accomplishment have been earnestly sought. The raising of the requirements for entrance; the introduction of a new marking system and especially a quality-credit system; the establishment of a new system of honors, rewards, and penalties; and a radical change in the, method of administering scholarships covering free tuition -- have raised greatly the quality of the classwork. At the same time the curricula have been completely revised, numerous new courses have been introduced, and departments of instruction have been strengthened. As evidence of these improvements on the qualitative side, this institution, which eight years ago was classed with secondary schools, is now officially rated by the highest accrediting agencies as a standard college.

Much needs to be accomplished in further developing the qualitative side as well as in enlarging the physical plant and increasing the faculty and student enrolment. There is also a vision in this respect, and encouraged by the progress of the past we must all continue to work consistently and unceasingly for its realization. In no other way can be created a greater, a better, and a more serviceable V. P. I!

    1926 Campus Master Plan

 

Conclusion

In the appendix will be found certain statistics and financial data for the year, which have been gathered from the registrar’s and treasurer’s offices, respectively. If the tables included in the report are read in connection with similar tables published in the volume of reports for the six years, 1919-20 to 1924-25, inclusive (Bulletin of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Vol XX, No. 3x, April, 1927), a continuous statistical and financial record for the college may be had from July 1, 1919, to the end of the period covered by this report. In this connection it is to be noted that the general report covers a year which ended on June 30 while the financial data apply to a year ended February 28.

Again I desire to express my appreciation to the members of the Board, and to my colleagues who have assisted so faithfully and well in connection with the numerous and varied demands that have been made upon them. Such success as we have attained during the year may be attributed to this cooperation, and continued progress in the future is dependent upon it. We are enlisted in a great cause. My prayer is that I may prove worthy of the trust.

Respectfully submitted,

Julian A. Burruss, President.

June 30, 1927.


1919-1929 Reports

Early President's Reports were published in bulletins, with multiple reports in each bulletin. Note that the original spelling of many words (enrolment, remodelling, etc.) has been retained.

1930-1931 Report

Introduction

General Report of the President

Reports of

The Dean of the College

The Dean of Agriculture

The Dean of Engineering

The Chairman of the Summer Quarter

The Committee on Graduate Programs and Degrees

The Director of the Agricultural Experiment Station

The Director of the Engineering Experiment Station

The Director of the Agricultural Extension Division

The Director of the Engineering Extension Division

The Librarian

The Adviser to Women Students

The Health Officer

The Secretary of the Young Men’s Christian Association

Statistical Tables

Statistics of Enrolment and Graduation

Summary of Treasurer’s Reports

1929-1930 Report

Introduction

General Report of the President

Reports of

The Dean of the College

The Dean of Agriculture

The Dean of Engineering

The Chairman of the Summer Quarter

The Committee on Graduate Programs and Degrees

The Director of the Agricultural Experiment Station

The Director of the Engineering Experiment Station

The Director of the Agricultural Extension Division

The Director of the Engineering Extension Division

The Librarian

The Adviser to Women Students

The Health Officer

The Secretary of the Young Men’s Christian Association

Statistical Tables

Statistics of Enrolment and Graduation

Summary of Treasurer’s Reports

1927-1928, 1928-1929 Reports

Introduction

1927-1928 -- General Report

1928-1929 -- General Report

Appendix

Enrolment Statistics

Summary of Treasurer's Reports

1925-26, 1926-27 Reports

1925-1927 Introduction

1925-1926 -- General Report

1926-1927 -- General Report

Appendix

Appointments, Tenure, and Salaries

Vacations, Office Hours, Records, etc.

Enrolment Statistics

Summary of Treasurer's Reports

1919-1925 Reports

Index

Introduction

1919-1920 Report

Preliminary Statement

First General Report

Second General Report

Special Report on Instruction

Special Report on Organization

1920-1921—General Report For The Year

1921-1922—General Report For The Year

1922-1923—General Report For The Year

1923-1924—General Report For The Year

1924-1925—General Report For The Year

Enrolment Statistics

Summary of Treasurer's Reports